GeoAlmanac for Land Surveyors Geography & App

D Terms in Land Surveying

D Terms in Land Surveying

D Terms

             D (Land Status Records)  – Director.
             DC  – District of Columbia.
             DC (Land Status Records)  – Donation claim. See DONATION LAND CLAIM.
             D/C (Land Status Records)  – Ditches and/or Canal.
             DDB  – Directives Digest Bulletin.
             DE  – Delaware. See Delaware Land Surveyors             DED (Land Status Records)  – Dedication.
             DEF (Land Status Records)  – Deficiency.
             DEP  – Department (of a traverse).
             DEPT OF AGRI (Land Status Records)  – Department of Agriculture.
             DEPT OF INT (Land Status Records ) – Department of the Interior.
             DES (Land Status Records)  – Designated or Designation.
             DET (Land Status Records)  – Determination.
             DI-10  – A brand name of electronic measurement equipment.
             DLC  – Donation land Claim.
             DLE (Land Status Records)  – Desert Land Entry.
             DM (Land Status Records)  – District Manager.
             DMD  – Double meridian distance.
             DOC (Land Status Records)  – Document.
             DPD  – Double parallel distance.
             DSC  – Denver Service Center.
             DANGER ZONE    – In regard to the rectangular limits of township boundaries, the  “danger zone”   is placed at
               theoretical bearings exceeding 14 minutes of arc from cardinal. In respect to lengths of lines, the  “danger zone”
               occurs when adjustments exceed 33 links per mile, as defined in Manual of Surveying Instructions.
             DATUM   – In ordinary survey usage, a defined reference for survey measurements. The plural form is datums. See
               GEODETIC DATUM, TIDAL DATUM, NORTH AMERICAN DATUM OF 1927*, MEAN SEA LEVEL, LEVEL
               DATUM*.
             DECISION  – a decision is the reduction to writing of the adjudicative process. A decision orders the disposition of a
               case in a certain way, and contains a statement of the facts, laws and reasoning which require that disposition.
             DECLINATION    – An angle of difference. See ASTRONOMIC DECLINATION, MAGNETIC DECLINATION,
               VARIATION.
             DECLINATION, ASTRONOMIC       – The angular distance of a celestial body north or south of the celestial equator.
               Astronomic declination on the celestial sphere corresponds with latitude on the earth. It is noted as positive (+) when
               north and negative (-) when south of the celestial equator.
             DEED  – A document which transfers title to real property. In those instances where a complicated metes and bounds
               description is the only description available, a deed may be used to transfer fee simple interest in public lands. A
               patent would be issued under normal conditions where a cadastral survey plat shows a description by legal
               subdivisions. See PATENT, WARRANTY, BARGAIN AND SALE, QUITCLAIM DEED, and DESCRIPTION
               BY LEGAL SUBDIVISIONS.
             DEFENDANT   – The person defending or denying; the party against whom relief or recovery is sought in an action or
               suit. See PLAINTIFF.
             DEFICIENCY   – The amount by which a boundary is less than the nominal amount which is usually 80 chains.
             DEFLECTION ANGLE     – The angular difference from a straight line at an angle point in a traverse.
             DE MINIMIS NON CURAT LEX      – The law does not care for, or take notice of, very small or trifling matters; the law
               does not concern itself about trifles. a surveyor’s return of 29 inches length for a location monument should be
               considered a trifling difference. See also RULE OF APPROXIMATION.
             DEMUR   – To take exception. To make an objection. To present a demurrer. See DEMURRER.
             DEMURRER    – An answer to a legal action that assumes the truth of the matter alleged by the opposite party. It then
               sets up the defense that the complaint is insufficient in law to sustain his claim or that there is some other defect
               constituting a legal reason why the opposing party should not be allowed to proceed further. Also, one who demurs.
             DEPARTURE*.
             DEPENDENT RESURVEY      – A retracement and reestablishment of the lines of the original survey in their true
               original positions according to the best available evidence of the positions of the original corners. It includes the
               restoration of lost corners in accordance with procedures described in the Manual of Surveying Instructions. See
               RESURVEY, INDEPENDENT RESURVEY, RETRACEMENT, and RESTORATION.
             DEPOSIT  – In mining, a quantity of mineral substances occurring naturally in the earth; as, a deposit of gold, oil, etc.
             DEPOSIT SURVEY    – A cadastral survey made under certain public land laws which allow or require that the claimant
               make a deposit of money in the estimated amount of the cost of the survey.
             DEPOSITION   – The testimony of a witness taken under oath and reduced to writing, authenticated, and intended to be
               used upon the trial of an action in court. A written declaration under oath, made upon notice to the adverse party for
               the purpose on enabling him to attend and cross-examine; or upon written interrogatories. It is the giving of notice to
               the adverse party which especially distinguishes a deposition from an affidavit. See AFFIDAVIT,
               INTERROGATORIES.
             DEPUTY SURVEYOR     – A surveyor who entered into a contract to survey a portion of the public lands under the
               system in existence prior to 1910 was commissioned by the Surveyor General as his deputy. See CONTRACT
               SYSTEM.
             DERELICTION    – Same as Reliction.
             DESCRIPTION   – See CORNER DESCRIPTION, LEGAL DESCRIPTION.
             DESCRIPTION BY LEGAL SUBDIVISION       – Definition of a unit or units of land with reference to the rectangular the
               system; for example, Lot 3 and SE �  NW � sec. 6, T. 8 N., R. 20 W., 5  Prin. Mer., Arkansas.
             DESERT-LAND APPLICATION, STATE       – An application filed by a State for a grant of desert land for the purpose
               of disposal to bona fide settlers. See CAREY ACTS.
             DESERT LAND ENTRY     – An entry of irrigable arid agricultural public lands, under the terms of the Act of March 3,
               1877, as amended, for the purpose of reclamation, irrigation and cultivation in part.
             DESERT-LAND SEGREGATION, STATE        – Arid public lands which have been selected by a State under the Carey
               Acts and which are set aside pending completion under State direction of an irrigation system to reclaim the lands.
             DIAGRAM, TOWNSHIP OR SECTION        – A standardized drawing of a township or of a section which shows the
               major legal subdivisions.
             DICTA  – Opinions of a judge which are beside the point of a case at issue before the court. See OBITER DICTUM.
             DICTUM   – A remark by the way. Generally, the word  “dictum”  is used as an abbreviated form of  “Obiter dictum.”
               See OBITER DICTUM.
             DIKE  – 1) (noun) An embankment or barrier constructed to hold water out of a low-lying area, or to hold water within
               an area. 2) (verb) To surround, protect, or enclose with such an embankment. 3) (in geology) A sheet like intrusion
               of magma forced upward through fissures in the earth’s crust and hardened to a tabular mass of igneous rock. A
               volcanic dike may vary from a few inches to hundreds of feet in horizontal thickness. See LEVEE, GROIN.
             DIRECT  – 1) a transit observation on the sun used for computing bearing as opposed to use of the solar instrument. 2)
               The normal position of the transit’s telescope. See DIRECT TIE, DIRECT MEASUREMENT, DIRECT ANGLES*.
             DIRECT MEASUREMENT       – Determination of a distance by physical comparison or accumulation of distance using
               a device calibrated in some unit of measure. See INDIRECT MEASUREMENT.
             DIRECT TIE  – A connection to another survey point by physical measurement. See DIRECT MEASUREMENT.
             DIRECTOR   – The present title of the official who is head of the Bureau of Land Management. Functions formerly
               assigned to the Commissioner of the General Land Office and to the Director of the Grazing Service are a part of
               this official’s responsibility.
             DIRECT SYSTEM    – The Interior Department appropriation Act of 1911 (June 25, 1910, 36 Stat. 703, 740), provided,
               under  “Surveying the Public Lands”; “The surveys and resurveys to be made by such competent surveyors as the
               Secretary of the Interior may select, …”  This provision ended the practice of letting contracts for the surveys of the
               public lands, and required the  “direct”  hiring of a permanent corps of cadastral surveyors. See CONTRACT
               SYSTEM.
             DIRTY SHEET   – A slang term for a sketch showing the current progress and details of the field work of a cadastral
               survey.
             DISCOVERY    – In mining law, as the basis of the right to locate a mining claim upon the public domain, discovery
               means the finding of mineralized rock in place. Also, the physical exposure of the mineral vein or lode or other
               mineral deposit on the ground. See VEIN, DISCOVERY, and POINT OF DISCOVERY.
             DISPOSAL, LAND   – A transaction which leads to the transfer of title to public lands from the Federal Government.
             DISPOSITION   – A transaction which leads to the transfer of public lands, and/or resources in these lands from the
               Federal Government.
             DISTANCE, PARENTHETICAL      – See PARENTHETICAL DISTANCE.
             DISTORTION   – A greater than usual change in bearings and distances of the original survey which is reflected by a
               retracement or resurvey.
             DISTRICT (BLM)   – The primary administrative division of a State Director’s geographic area of responsibility. A
               geographic area composed of at least two (typically three or four) resource areas under the supervision of a District
               Manager. See DISTRICT MANAGER AND RESOURCE AREA.
             DISTRICT MANAGER (BLM)      – The principal Bureau official at the district level. He is directly accountable to the
               State Director. See STATE DIRECTOR.
             DISTRICT OFFICES (BLM)    – The States and cities in which BLM district offices are currently (1973) located are as
               follows:
             Alaska – Anchorage and Fairbanks.
             Arizona – Phoenix and Safford.
             California – Bakersfield, Folsom, Redding, Riverside, Susanville and Ukiah.
             Colorado – Canon City, Craig, Glenwood Springs, Grand Junction and Montrose.
             Idaho – Boise, Burley, Coeur d’Alene, Idaho Falls, Salmon and Shoshone.
             Montana – Billings, Dillon, Lewiston, Malta, Miles City and Missoula.
             Nevada – Battle Mountain, Carson City, Elko, Ely, Las Vegas and Winnemucca.
             New Mexico – Albuquerque, Las Cruces, Roswell and Socorro.
             Oregon – Baker, Burns, Coos Bay, Eugene, Lakeview, Medford, Prineville, Roseburg, Salem and Vale.
             Utah – Cedar City, Fillmore, Kanab, Monticello, Price, Richfield, St. George, Salt Lake City and Vernal.
             Washington – Spokane (Administered through Oregon State Office).
             Wyoming – Casper, Lander, Pinedale, Rawlins, Rock Springs and Worland.
             See SPECIAL OFFICES (BLM), STATE OFFICES (BLM), LAND OFFICES (BLM), DISTRICT (BLM), DISTRICT
               MANAGER (BLM).
             DITCHES AND/OR CANALS      – Used to indicate a reservation to the United States of a right, or an easement for the
               construction and maintenance of ditches or canals, as stated in a particular patent.
             DIURNAL   – Daily. Usually used in reference to a natural phenomenon which occurs only once in a given day.
             DIVEST  – To deprive; take away or withdraw. Usually spoken of in reference to depriving or dispossessing one of
               property, title or authority.
             DIVIDE  – A ridge or area of elevated land between two basins or valleys. See CONTINENTAL DIVIDE,
               HYDROGRAPHIC DIVIDE and RIDGE TOP.
             DIVISION LINE BETWEEN A BOG AND AN UPLAND AREA          – The line where the area occupied by a shallow,
               virtually undrained bog area meets mineral soil, which lies above ordinary high water. If upland vegetation is
               present, the inference will be that it has been an upland site for the period equal to the age of the vegetation. See
    &nbnbsp;          BOG and UPLANDS.
             DIVISION LINE BETWEENA MEANDERABLE BODY OF WATER AND A SWAMP– The line where the
               area occupied by the water for the greater part of each average year meets the area where the types of vegetation
               occur which may normally be found only within the swamp zone. For example, while certain varieties of trees are
               found only in upland situation, other varieties and other types of vegetation may be found only within the zone of
               the swamp. All such vegetation normally ends at the margin of permanent water. See SWAMP.
             DIVISION LINE BETWEEN A SWAMP AND AN UPLAND AREA           – The line where an area lying above the
               ordinary high water elevation meets an area of low, wet land of such character that without the construction of
               artificial reclamation methods it would be wet and unfit for agriculture. See SWAMP, MARSH, BOG, SALT
               MARSH, SWAMP AND OVERFLOWED LANDS, and UPLANDS.
             DOCUMENT    – 1) An instrument on which is recorded, by means of letters, figures, marks or symbols, information
               which may be relied upon as the basis, proof or support of something. A deed, agreement, title paper, letter or other
               written instrument used to prove a fact. 2) To furnish written evidence. To provide with factual or substantial
               support for statements made or a hypothesis proposed; especially, to equip with exact references too authoritative
               supporting information.
             DOMESDAY-BOOK (Sometimes Doomsday-Book)      – A record of a survey of English lands made by order of
               William the Conqueror. It was begun in 1081 and finished in 1086. It is a description of the land, with the names of
               the owners, and the nature and extent of their holdings. It was, in effect, a cadastral survey.
             DONATION    – The voluntary conveyance of private property to public ownership and/or use, without compensation to
               the owner.
             DONATION ACT OF SEPTEMBER 27, 1850      – Provided for grants of 320 acres to all White American citizens or
               those who intended to become citizens and who had resided in Oregon Territory and cultivated the land 4 years;
               wives to have an additional 320 acres. All white male citizens or intended citizens who emigrated there between
               Dec. 1, 1850 & Dec. 1, 1853, and who met the other requirements, were to have 160 acres or 320 acres, depending
               on their marital status. See DONATION LAND CLAIM.
             DONATION LAND CLAIM      – The land, 320 or 640 acres, that was allocated to an Oregon settler under the Donation
               Act of September 27, 1850. See DONATION ACT OF SEPTEMBER 27, 1850, ACT OF AUGUST 4, 1842, ACT
               OF JULY 22, 1854, and DONATION LANDS.
             DONATION LANDS     – Lands granted from the public domain to an individual or, as in the case of lands donated or
               granted to railroads as an incentive for construction, to corporations. See also DONATION.
             DOUBLE CENTERING*.
             DOUBLE CORNER     – Normally the two sets of corners along a standard parallel; the standard township, section, and
               quarter-section corners placed at regular intervals of measurement; additionally, the closing corners established on
               the line at the points of intersection of the guide meridians, range and section lines of the surveys brought in from
               the south. In other cases, not fully in conformity with the rectangular plan, two corners, each common to two
               townships only, instead of one corner of the four townships. Similarly, two corners, each common to two sections;
               and two quarter-section corners, each referring to one section only. The term is sometimes used incorrectly to denote
               two lines established on the ground although the field-note record indicates only one line, thus creating a hiatus or
               overlap.
             DOUBLE MERIDIAN DISTANCE       – 1) The sum of the distances from the end points of a line to an arbitrary
               reference north-south line used for area computations. Sometimes considered as twice the distance from the
               midpoint of a line, which is mathematically equivalent. 2) The method of computing areas using DMDs or DPDs.
             DOUBLE PARALLEL DISTANCE       – The sum of the distances from the end points of a line to an arbitrary east-west
               line used for checking area computations by the DMD method.
             DOUBLE PROPORTIONATE MEASUREMENT (Also called “4-Way” proportion)        – A method of restoring a
               lost corner of four townships or four interior sections. It gives concordant relation between all parts of the times. The
               new values given to the several parts, as determined by remeasurement shall bear the same relation to the record
               lengths as the new measurement of the whole line bears to that record. In cases of distorted lines subject to double
               proportion, measurements are comparable only when reduced to their equivalent latitudes and departures. See
               SINGLE PROPORTIONATE MEASUREMENT and PROPORTIONATE MEASUREMENT.
             DOWER   – The portion of, or interest in, the real estate of a deceased husband which the law gives to his widow for
               life. The extent varies with statutory provisions. See CURTESY.
             DRAINAGE ENTRY     – An entry, not exceeding 160 acres, on public lands. Under Federal statutory authority, a non-
               Federal tax, or drainage charge, is levied against such lands to defray the costs of draining swamp and overflowed
               lands. Also Drainage Homestead Entry.
             DRIFT  – In mining, an underground passage driven horizontally along the course of a mineralized vein or
               approximately so. See SHAFT, TUNNEL, ADIT, CROSSCUT, DRIFT*.
             DUE  – Directly or exactly; in a cardinal direction with the usual precision of that survey.

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