work vice-head of the inspection department unit with a staff of 12-20 employees. I'm working on EU affairs since 1995, when Finland joined the European Union.
In my working area (Pohjois-Savo) we have about 4500 farmer and last 2 year farmers will receive about 130 000 000€ European Union financial aid per year. We check every year by 5% of the beneficiaries.
We use exsample Trimble Geo XH devices to surveying those fields.
ides. 727 is the second of three new GLONASS satellites, all launched on December 25, 2008, to reach this status.
As of January 16, the L-band transmitters of GLONASS 728 had been activated on its assigned frequencies. GLONASS 728 became active on January 15 and has been added to the broadcast almanac and ephemerides. Both new birds are being tracked by several IGS stations. As this magazine goes to press, GLONASS 729 continues the trek to its designated orbit slot.
IIR(M)-20 Launch Scheduled for March
The GPS satellite carrying the first payload to transmit the L5 signal, originally slated to launch in June 2008 but hampered by launch vehicle problems, is now scheduled for launch March 24 from Florida’s Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.
The delay has begun to concern the GNSS community, because unless a U.S. satellite begins broadcasting on the L5 frequency (1176.45 MHz) by August 26, the U.S. government may lose its International Telecommunications Union allocation for that frequency. Plans for the modernized GPS fleet, including GPS III, call for the use of L5 as a third civilian signal, mainly for safety-of-life applications.
But IIR-20(M) has seen a number of launch delays. The three-stage configuration of the Delta II launch vehicle has developed problems with its stage separation mechanism, apparently because of a change in manufacturing methods.
IIR-21(M), which has also been delayed by the Delta II fuse problem, is now slated for a summer 2009 launch.
Compass Confirms Global Goal 2015
China plans to complete its global satellite navigation system by launching 30 more orbiters before 2015, sending 10 navigation satellites into space in 2009 and 2010, said Zhang Xiaojin, director of astronautics department with China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation on January 18.
The Chinese plan to establish an independent global navigation system to shake off dependence on foreign systems, Zhang said.
China launched the first satellite, Beidou Navigation System, into geostationary orbit in October 2000. The current Beidou system, with five positioning orbiters, provides regional navigation service within China’s territory.
Raytheon Makes OCX Progress
The Raytheon Co.-led team vying for the U.S. Air Force contract for the next-generation GPS control segment (OCX) has completed a segment design review and modernized capability engineering model demonstration.
Raytheon and competitor Northrop Grumman are under 18-month Phase A contracts as part of the development program for OCX. The Air Force plans to choose one company later this year to continue the program through development, deployment, and sustainment in Phase B.
A comprehensive review by government and military personnel and consultants of the team’s progress in systems engineering, architecture, and program management demonstrates that the design is sufficiently mature and the level of residual risk is acceptable to proceed to the program’s next phase.
New PNT ExCom Chair. Prior to his inauguration, President Barack Obama tapped Raytheon executive William J. Lynn III for the position of deputy secretary of defense (DoD); if approved, Lynn would also serve as co-chair of the National Executive Committee for Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing.
Lynn served as under secretary of defense from 1997 to 2001 under President Clinton; the under secretary serves as the DoD’s comptroller, acting as the chief financial officer and principal advisor to the secretary of defense for budgetary and fiscal matters. From 1993 to 1997, Lynn was the director of program analysis and evaluation in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, where he oversaw all aspects of the DoD’s strategic planning process.
Lynn comes from his most recent post as senior vice president of government operations and strategy at Raytheon. As such, his appointment runs counter to an Obama promise to avoid lobbyists in the new administration; Lynn was previously registered as a lobbyist but deregistered in June 2008.
Galileo Open Service: One Size Fits All?
A one-day seminar organized by the U.K. Royal Institute of Navigation’s (RIN) Space Special Interest Group takes place February 12 at the Royal Geographical Society in London, with speakers from European organizations, government, industry, and users.
Conflicting points of view will be put forward at this meeting, organizers say. The RIN invites everyone to come and join in with their views. Prior registration for the seminar is required.
SatNav Summit, Summer School Open
The Munich Satellite Navigation Summit convenes March 3–5 in Munich, Germany, for concise updates on worldwide system modernization, receiver design, and service creation.
GPS World editor Alan Cameron will speak on a March 5 panel: Are GNSS innovations accelerating or slowing down?
School. The Third International Summer School on GNSS, July 20–30 in Berchtesgaden near Munich, covers GNSS design, development, and applications. For graduate/ Ph.D. students, researchers, and professionals less than 33 years of age.
Targeted Daily GNSS News Delivery
A new website service, GPS World Alert enables readers to choose keywords, topics, or categories of interest, to receive an e-mail alert the minute these articles appear on GPSWorld.com.
“Readers can now control the content they receive and the frequency of delivery,” says Kristina Panter, publisher of GPS World. “Sometimes the critical edge for a company is receiving key information or late-breaking news before a competitor does. Bottom-line subscribers only want to read what they want to read, and GPS World Alert provides just that.”
GPS World editors continue to post fresh stories on a daily basis to the magazine’s homepage every business day. Stories cover system issues (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and Compass development, modernization, or augmentation) and business and industry matters in eight market sectors.
Navigate! With the debut of Alert and the continued service of RSS feed, both providing tailored news on a daily basis, publication of the free Navigate! e-newsletter now shifts to a weekly frequency, appearing every Tuesday.
Free monthly newsletters focus on Survey & Construction, Military & Government, Professional OEM, Mass Market OEM, Utilities & Communications, LBS, and System Design and Test.…
al geodesists before 1900
Pythagoras 580–490 BC, ancient Greece
Eratosthenes 276–194 BC, ancient Greece
Posidonius ca.135–51 BC, ancient Greece
Claudius Ptolemy 83–c.168 AD, Roman Empire (Roman Egypt)
Abu Rayhan Biruni 973–1048, Khorasan
Sir George Biddell Airy 1801–1892, Cambridge & London
Muhammad al-Idrisi 1100–1166, (Arabia & Sicily)
Al-Ma'mun 786–833, Baghdad (Iraq/Mesopotamia)
Pedro Nunes 1502–1578 Portugal
Gerhard Mercator 1512–1594 (Belgium & Germany)
Snellius (Willebrord Snel van Royen) 1580–1626, Leiden (Netherlands)
Christiaan Huygens 1629–1695 (Netherlands)
Pierre de Maupertuis 1698–1759 (France)
Pierre Bouguer 1698–1758, (France & Peru)
Johann Heinrich Lambert 1728–1777 (France)
Alexis Clairaut 1713–1765 (France)
Johann Jacob Baeyer 1794–1885, Berlin (Germany)
Karl Maximilian von Bauernfeind, Munich (Germany)
Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel 1784–1846, Königsberg (Germany)
Roger Joseph Boscovich, Rome/ Berlin/ Paris
Heinrich Bruns 1848–1919, Berlin (Germany)
Alexander Ross Clarke 1828–1914, London (England)
Loránd Eötvös 1848–1919 (Hungary)
George Everest 1830–1843 (England & India)
Hervé Faye 1814–1902 (France)
Abel Foullon 1513-1563 or 1565, (France)
Carl Friedrich Gauß 1777–1855, Göttingen (Germany)
Friedrich Robert Helmert 1843–1917, Potsdam (Germany)
Hipparchus, Nicaea, modern Turkey
Pierre-Simon Laplace 1749–1827, Paris (France)
Adrien Marie Legendre 1752–1833, Paris (France)
Johann Benedikt Listing 1808–1882 (Germany)
Friedrich H. C. Paschen, Schwerin (Germany)
Charles Sanders Peirce 1839–1914 (United States)
Henri Poincaré 1854-1912, Paris (France)
J. H. Pratt 1809–1871, London (England)
Regiomontanus 1436-1476, (Germany/Austria)
Georg von Reichenbach 1771–1826, Bavaria (Germany)
Heinrich Christian Schumacher 1780–1850 (Germany & Estonia)
Johann Georg von Soldner 1776–1833, Munich (Germany)
George Gabriel Stokes 1819–1903 (England)
Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve 1793–1864, Dorpat and Pulkowa/St.-Petersburg (Russia)
Wilhelm Jordan 1842–1899, Germany
Willem Baarda, 1917-2005, (Netherlands)
Tadeusz Banachiewicz, 1882–1954, (Poland)
Arne Bjerhammar, 1917-2011, (Sweden)
W. Bowie, 1872–1940, (US)
Erik Grafarend, Stuttgart, (Germany)
John Fillmore Hayford, 1868–1925, (US)
Irene Kaminka Fischer, 1907–2009, (US)
Veikko Aleksanteri Heiskanen, 1895–1971, (Finland and US)
Friedrich Hopfner, 1881-1949, Vienna, (Austria)
Martin Hotine, 1898–1968, (England)
Harold Jeffreys, 1891-1989, London, (England)
Karl-Rudolf Koch, Bonn, (Germany)
Rafael Mercado, (US)
Mikhail Sergeevich Molodenskii, 1909–1991, (Russia)
Helmute Moritz, Graz, (Austria)
John A. O'Keefe, 1916–2000, (US)
Karl Ramsayer, 1911-1982, Stuttgart, (Germany)
Hellmut Schmid, 1914-1998, (Switzerland)
Petr Vaníček, 1935, Fredericton, (Canada)
Yrjö Väisälä, 1889–1971, (Finland)
Felix Andries Vening-Meinesz, 1887–1966, (Netherlands)
Thaddeus Vincenty, 1920-2002, (Poland)
Alfred Wegener, 1880–1930, (Germany and Greenland)
International Association of Geodesy (IAG)
International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG)
Fédération Internationale des Géomètres (FIG)
European Petroleum Survey Group (EPSG) (which despite being officially disbanded in 2005 continues to refine a well tested set of Geodetic Parameters)
International Geodetic Student Organisation (IGSO)
s first step in advancing from a nomadic to a more settled existence, he had no need for land measurement, nor did he have a need to record his claim to ownership of individual pieces of land. It is highly probable therefore, that Egypt saw the first use of a cadastral system and of cadastral surveying. Evidence from the contents of tombs indicates that there was indeed a form of public land registration and that the land courts would entertain no claim if the land were not registered.
There is also evidence that a simple but effective system of cadastral surveying was used to set out the boundaries of individual plots of arable land. Even more importantly, cadastral surveying was needed to recover the beacons and boundaries of these individual plots after they had been inundated during the annual flooding of the Nile. The corner beacons of the plots were set out or recovered by measuring from permanent markers above the flood line.
It is fascinating that the system used in Ancient Egypt all those years ago, exhibits the important characteristics of our own modern cadastral system, in that the properties were surveyed and that ownership was recorded in a public register. The importance of having the basic details of a property in an official register, where these could easily be consulted, was recognised from the beginning. It is complete contrast to the system in vogue in some countries, until very recently, where information relating to land ownership was not registered in a public office but in the offices of private conveyancers. From there this information could be obtained only with considerable difficulty.
In contrast to Egypt, in many countries where there was a settled population, there was also an abundance of natural and cultural (artificial) features which, conveniently leant themselves to be used as boundaries. These included permanently flowing streams, hedges and stone walls. There was no need therefore, for corner beacons and so it came about that two basic systems of boundary demarcation developed – that of using natural and man-made features as boundaries, called the general boundary system, and that of relying on beaconed corners.
In South Africa, where natural and cultural features are few and far between, the only practical method of demarcating property is that of using beaconed corner points joined, with few exceptions, by straight line boundaries.
The Colonial Era in South Africa
The first land surveyor came to the Cape in 1657, some five years after Jan van Riebeeck had established the first European settlement at the southern tip of Africa. The first cadastral survey was the survey of a piece of land on the banks of the Liesbeeck River, in order to transfer this land to a released servant of the Dutch East India Company. Apart from the river, which conveniently formed one boundary, poles were erected to demarcate the other boundaries, which were straight lines.
This and other early cadastral surveys were however graphical, which was suitable for Europe with its many permanent features, but not at all suitable for a newly settled country. As the farming areas spread out from Cape Town, the farms became larger and graphical surveys became even more unsatisfactory as a means of determining the position of corner beacons. However, graphical surveys were to persist for two centuries, until 1857, when the use of theodolites and the recording of numerical data on diagrams were made compulsory.
The British occupation of the Cape in 1806 had also brought about a tightening up of land registration procedures, and from 1813 no sale of land would be recognised unless that land had been properly surveyed and registered. The new office of the Surveyor-General was created in 1828 in order, amongst other duties, to register all grants of land. The examination of diagrams and the examination of surveyors themselves, were undertaken by the Surveyor-General from the 1830’s. When Natal became a separate district of the Cape Colony in 1845, a Surveyor-General was appointed there also and the Transvaal and Orange Free State followed suit in 1866 and 1876 respectively.
After Union in 1910, these four territories retained their individual legislation, controlling cadastral surveying until the commencement of the Land Survey Act 9 of 1927.
The Land Survey Act of 1927 put cadastral surveying in South Africa in the position it is today; it is one of the best and most reliable systems of defining the boundaries of properties, and the positions of rights affecting those properties anywhere in the world. The individual land surveyor’s field and office records were now examined and, after approval, were preserved in the Surveyor-General’s office as evidence for any future boundary relocation. All surveys also had to be connected to the national control survey system, as this was extended across the country. That this Act was a well thought-out document, based on sound experience, is evident as it was used with only minor amendments to it for sixty years until it was replaced by a new, but substantially similar, Land Survey Act 8 of 1997.
In 1971 the Sectional Title Act made it possible, for the first time in South Africa, for flats and other portions of buildings to be individually owned. The 1971 Act has since been replaced by Sectional Title Act 95 of 1986.
The Surveyor in the Field
National Control Survey System
South Africa is fully covered by the National Control Survey System which is of high accuracy and which is marked by a network of trigonometric stations and town survey marks.
It is a legal requirement that all cadastral surveys are connected to this control network, ensuring that the position of every beacon and boundary is accurately known, and that property boundaries do not overlap, and that beacons that are lost or destroyed can be replaced with the minimum delay and expense.
The great majority of non-cadastral surveys, such as those for road construction, are also based on this national control network with tremendous benefits for orderly and cost-effective development in South Africa.
All cadastral and all other surveys that are referred to the National Control Survey System, are calculated in plane coordinates. The projection used is the Gauss Conform Projection (an adaptation of the Transverse Mercator projection), with central meridians at odd-numbered degrees of longitude and two-degree wide belts. The unit of measure of length is the International Metre.
As from 1 January 1999, the South African National Control Survey System has been based on the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84) ellipsoid, with the position of the Hartebeeshoek Radio Astronomy Telescope as the origin of the system.
Although the methods that may be used in cadastral surveying are not rigidly prescribed, it is a requirement that all work be adequately and carefully checked. All recognised methods, using modern accurate instruments, are acceptable. Special requirements are however laid down when surveys are undertaken, using GPS (Global Positioning System) or photogrammetric techniques. In South Africa most cadastral surveys are done using total stations and/or GPS.
The accuracies to which surveys must be carried out are prescribed in the Land Survey Act. There are three classes of survey, each with its specified accuracy limit:
Class A – Surveys for the determination of the positions of reference marks in urban surveys,
Class B – Surveys in urban and peri-urban areas and for mining titles in respect of precious stones and minerals,
Class C – Other surveys, including farm surveys and surveys for mining titles in respect of base minerals.
Beacons and Boundaries
South Africa is generally a large open country, with few natural or artificial features that are suitable for adoption as property boundaries. The boundaries of properties or land parcels are marked by permanent corner beacons joined, usually by imaginary straight lines, although the boundary lines between beacons may be curvilinear features in certain circumstances.
The types of beacon that may be used are prescribed by regulation, and new beacons must be iron pegs of specified dimensions. Well-constructed corner fence posts and corners of permanent buildings may also be adopted as beacons. Should rock or buildings prevent placing a beacon, a hole may be drilled to indicate the position.
Although the boundaries between beacons are usually straight lines, certain natural or artificial features that are permanent and clearly defined, may be adopted as curvilinear boundaries. The most common examples are the middle of a river and the top edge of a cliff.
Artificial features which are liable to be moved, such as fences, roads and railway lines, may not be adopted as new cadastral boundaries.
Original and Division Surveys
When an unregistered piece of land is granted, a so-called original survey is carried out and a diagram prepared by the land surveyor.
Before being approved by the Surveyor-General, this diagram is made available for inspection by the public to give all interested parties an opportunity to satisfy themselves that the land to be granted does not conflict with their property. Only after any objections have been resolved, is the diagram approved and bound with the deed of grant, which can then be registered in the name of the new owner or grantee. Original grants do not often occur now in South Africa.
Subsequent division and subdivisions do not require making diagrams available for public inspection before approval.
In undertaking a survey to subdivide an existing piece of land, the land surveyor has very specific responsibilities. He/she must:
Study all available information from previous surveys;
Where possible find and determine the positions of the original beacons; then
Determine the best agreement between the old and new surveys.
In the event of disagreement between the evidence on the ground and the data on the diagram, a 1924 High Court decision lays down that the lawful position of a property corner is that occupied by the original beacon itself and not the position according to the diagram. Such disagreement is only likely to occur when dealing with very old original surveys.
The permissible differences between old and new surveys are prescribed by regulation and, if these are exceeded, the land surveyor must obtain the agreement of all affected landowners to the position he has selected for the beacon or boundary. Once the relationship between old and new has been settled, the land surveyor proceeds to place the subdivisional beacons, so as to subdivide the land in accordance with the approval plan of subdivision. The subdivision can be a relatively simple matter, creating a small number of new properties, or it can be a highly complex township layout involving the “pegging out” of hundreds or even thousands of erven, public places and streets.
Statutory Restrictions on Cadastral Surveys
There are many statutory restraints placed on landowners wishing to develop their land and, which the cadastral surveyor is bound to observe. Although this severely restricts an owner’s right to deal with his/her land as he/she wishes, the State has imposed these restrictions in the interest of orderly planning and development, and for the benefit of the community as a whole.
With few exceptions permission must be obtained before land can be subdivided. The list of laws and ordinances, which control the subdivision of land, is a long one and is subject to change, and no attempt will be made here to list them. In many cases permission to subdivide must be obtained from more than one authority.
As part of his/her function, a Surveyor-General must ensure that all applicable consents have been obtained before approving a subdivisional survey.
The Role of the Surveyor-General
There are four Surveyor-General’s offices in South Africa, each of which regulates cadastral surveys in the provinces for which it is responsible. Their principal functions briefly are to:
Examine and approve diagrams, general plans and sectional title plans prior to them being registered in a Deeds Registry.
Preserve and keep up-to-date all documents and records pertaining to cadastral surveys.
Prepare and keep up to date cadastral maps and plans, both in paper and digital form.
Supply copies of documents kept in the office in hard copy or digital form. The office also provides advice and information pertaining to the cadastre to all who ask.
The fact that the Surveyor-General’s office holds complete records of all cadastral surveys, ensures that there is virtually no possibility of properties overlapping and, once registered, little chance of conflicting claims to ownership.
The diagram is the fundamental registerable document prepared by the land surveyor. The essential information shown on a diagram is:
The unique designation of the property.
An illustration depicting the property.
The boundary description listing the corner beacons and the details of any curvilinear boundary.
Descriptions of the corner beacons.
A table listing the numerical data of the boundaries.
The area of the property.
The Surveyor-General gives each diagram a unique reference number.
The most common type of diagram is a subdivisional diagram. This is framed for the purpose of cutting off a portion of a parent property. There are other types of diagram however, including:
Servitude diagrams for registering servitudes over an existing property;
Lease diagrams for registering long term leases over portions of properties;
Consolidation diagrams when it is required to consolidate several individual properties into one, taking out certificates of consolidated title;
Mineral diagrams to register mineral rights separately from the land rights; and
Mining title diagrams for registering the right to extract minerals from the land.
With the exception of mining title diagrams, which are registered with the Department of Minerals and Energy, these diagrams are registered together with their deeds in a deeds registry.
In the case of the subdivision of a piece of land into a number of pieces the land surveyor usually prepares a general plan instead of individual diagrams. This is a document showing the relative position of two or more pieces of land together with the same essential information in respect of each piece as is required on a diagram. It is also allocated a unique reference number by the Surveyor-General. It is compulsory to prepare a general plan for any subdivision into ten or more pieces of land and when required, in terms of any law, usually for township establishment or the amendment of an existing general plan. General plans may comprise many sheets and depict a very large number of erven (lots).
When submitting the diagrams and general plans framed from his/her survey, a land surveyor is obliged also to lodge the records of that survey with the Surveyor-General. These records are used to support the examination process and are then preserved in the Surveyor-General’s office. Land surveyors later refer to these records when relocating or replacing lost beacons and when extending the earlier survey. The principal records kept by the Surveyor-General are:
The field observations, which are the primary record of the survey,
A list of co-ordinates of the beacons and reference stations,
A working plan,
A plan on which is shown the comparison between the original and the new survey data, and
The land surveyor’s report.
These records are now being captured in the document imaging system (DIS) for easier access and to facilitate the supply of information to land surveyors.
The above is an article that was written by and appears on the website of the Chief Surveyor-General…
1775, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich
7 November [O.S. 27 October]1728Marton, Yorkshire, England,Great Britain
14 February 1779 (aged 50)Hawaii
Postgate School, Great Ayton
Explorer, navigator, cartographer
James Cook, Nathaniel Cook, Elizabeth Cook, Joseph Cook, George Cook, Hugh Cook
James Cook, Grace Pace
Captain James Cook FRS RN (7 November [O.S. 27 October] 1728 – 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator and cartographer, ultimately rising to the rank of Captain in the Royal Navy. Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean during which he achieved the first European contact with the eastern coastline ofAustralia and the Hawaiian Islands as well as the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.
Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755. He saw action in the Seven Years' War, and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec. This helped bring Cook to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society. This notice came at a crucial moment both in his personal career and in the direction of British overseas exploration, and led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HM Bark Endeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages.
Cook charted many areas and recorded several islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. His achievements can be attributed to a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, courage in exploring dangerous locations to confirm the facts (for example dipping into the Antarctic Circle repeatedly and exploring around the Great Barrier Reef), an ability to lead men in adverse conditions, and boldness both with regard to the extent of his explorations and his willingness to exceed the instructions given to him by the Admiralty.
Cook was killed in Hawaii in a fight with Hawaiians during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific in 1779.
1 Early life
2 Family life
3 Start of Royal Navy career
4 First voyage (1768–71)
6 Second voyage (1772–75)
7 Third voyage (1776–79) and death
9 See also
12 External links
Cook was born in the village of Marton in Yorkshire, now a suburb of Middlesbrough. He was baptised in the local church of St. Cuthbert, where his name can be seen in the church register. Cook was the second of eight children of James Cook, a Scottish farm labourer, and his locally born wife, Grace Pace, from Thornaby-on-Tees. In 1736, his family moved to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton, where his father's employer, Thomas Skottowe paid for him to attend the local school (now a museum). In 1741, after five years schooling, he began work for his father, who had by now been promoted to farm manager. For leisure, he would climb a nearby hill,Roseberry Topping, enjoying the opportunity for solitude. Cooks' Cottage, his parents' last home, which he is likely to have visited, is now in Melbourne, having been moved from England and reassembled, brick by brick, in 1934.
Portrait of James Cook by John Webber, date unknown – before 1793.
In 1745, when he was 16, Cook moved 20 miles (32 km) to the fishing village of Staithes, to be apprenticed as a shop boy to grocer and haberdasher William Sanderson. Historians have speculated that this is where Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window.
After 18 months, not proving suitable for shop work, Cook travelled to the nearby port town of Whitby, to be introduced to friends of Sanderson's, John and Henry Walker. The Walkers were prominent local ship-owners and Quakers, and were in the coal trade. Their house is now the Captain Cook Memorial Museum. Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their small fleet of vessels, plying coal along the English coast. His first assignment was aboard the collier Freelove, and he spent several years on this and various other coasters, sailing between the Tyne and London. As part of this apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, navigation and astronomy, all skills he would need one day to command his own ship.
His three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the Baltic Sea. He soon progressed through the merchant navy ranks, starting with his 1752 promotion to Mate (officer in charge of navigation) aboard the collier brig Friendship. In 1755, within a month of being offered command of this vessel, he volunteered for service in the Royal Navy, as Britain was re-arming for what was to become theSeven Years' War. Despite the need to start back at the bottom of the naval hierarchy, Cook realised his career would advance more quickly in military service and entered the Navy at Wapping on 7 June 1755.
Cook married Elizabeth Batts (1742–1835), the daughter of Samuel Batts, keeper of the Bell Inn, Wapping and one of his mentors, on 21 December 1762 at St. Margaret's Church in Barking, Essex. The couple had six children: James (1763–1794), Nathaniel (1764–1781), Elizabeth (1767–1771), Joseph (1768–1768), George (1772–1772) and Hugh (1776–1793). When not at sea, Cook lived in the East End of London. He attended St Paul's Church, Shadwell, where his son James was baptised. Stepney Historical Trust has placed a plaque on Free Trade Wharf in the Highway, Shadwell to commemorate his life in the East End of London.
Start of Royal Navy career
Further information: Great Britain in the Seven Years War
James Cook's 1775 chart ofNewfoundland
Cook's first posting was with HMS Eagle, sailing with the rank of master's mate. In October and November 1755 he took part in Eagles capture of one French warship and the sinking of another, following which he was promoted to boatswain in addition to his other duties. His first temporary command was in March 1756 when he was briefly the master of the Cruizer, a small cutter attached to the Eagle while on patrol.
In June 1757 Cook passed his master's examinations at Trinity House, Deptford qualifying him to navigate and handle a ship of the King's fleet. He then joined the frigate HMS Solebay as master under Captain Robert Craig.
During the Seven Years' War, he served in North America as master of Pembroke In 1758 he took part in the major amphibious assault that captured the Fortress of Louisbourg from the French. Cook then participated in the siege of Quebec City before the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759. He showed a talent for surveying and cartography and was responsible for mapping much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege, allowing General Wolfe to make his famous stealth attack on the Plains of Abraham.
Cook's surveying skills were put to good use in the 1760s, mapping the jagged coast of Newfoundland. Cook surveyed the northwest stretch in 1763 and 1764, the south coast between the Burin Peninsula and Cape Ray in 1765 and 1766, and the west coast in 1767. Cook’s five seasons in Newfoundland produced the first large-scale and accurate maps of the island’s coasts; they also gave Cook his mastery of practical surveying, achieved under often adverse conditions, and brought him to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society at a crucial moment both in his personal career and in the direction of British overseas discovery. Cook's map would be used into the 20th century, copies of it being referenced by those sailing Newfoundland's waters for 200 years.
Following on from his exertions in Newfoundland, it was at this time that Cook wrote, he intended to go not only:
"... farther than any man has been before me, but as far as I think it is possible for a man to go."
First voyage (1768–71)
Main article: First voyage of James Cook
In 1766, the Royal Society hired Cook to travel to the Pacific Ocean to observe and record the transit of Venus across the Sun. Cook was promoted to Lieutenant and named as commander of the expedition. The expedition sailed from England in 1768, rounded Cape Horn and continued westward across the Pacific to arrive at Tahiti on 13 April 1769, where the observations of the Venus Transit was made. However, the result of the observations was not as conclusive or accurate as had been hoped. Cook later mapped the complete New Zealand coastline, making only some minor errors. He then sailed west, reaching the south-eastern coast of the Australian continent on 19 April 1770, and in doing so his expedition became the first recorded Europeans to have encountered its eastern coastline.
Endeavour replica in Cooktown, Queensland harbour — just off the shore where the original Endeavour was beached for 7 weeks in 1770.
On 23 April he made his first recorded direct observation of indigenous Australians at Brush Island near Bawley Point, noting in his journal: "...and were so near the Shore as to distinguish several people upon the Sea beach they appear'd to be of a very dark or black Colour but whether this was the real colour of their skins or the C[l]othes they might have on I know not." On 29 April Cook and crew made their first landfall on the mainland of the continent at a place now known as the Kurnell Peninsula, which he named Botany Bay after the unique specimens retrieved by the botanists Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander. It is here that James Cook made first contact with an Aboriginal tribe known as the Gweagal.
After his departure from Botany Bay he continued northwards, and a mishap occurred whenEndeavour ran aground on a shoal of the Great Barrier Reef, on 11 June, and "nursed into a river mouth on 18 June 1770.". The ship was badly damaged and his voyage was delayed almost seven weeks while repairs were carried out on the beach (near the docks of modern Cooktown, at the mouth of the Endeavour River). Once repairs were complete the voyage continued, sailing through Torres Strait and on 22 August he landed on Possession Island, where he claimed the entire coastline he had just explored as British territory. He returned to England via Batavia (modern Jakarta, Indonesia), the Cape of Good Hope and the island of Saint Helena, arriving on 12 July 1771.
Cook's journals were published upon his return, and he became something of a hero among the scientific community. Among the general public, however, the aristocratic botanist Joseph Banks was a bigger hero. Banks even attempted to take command of Cook's second voyage, but removed himself from the voyage before it began, and Johann Reinhold Forster and his son Georg Forster were taken on as scientists for the voyage. Cook's son George was born five days before he left for his second voyage.
The routes of Captain James Cook's voyages. The first voyage is shown in red, second voyage in green, and third voyage in blue. The route of Cook's crew following his death is shown as a dashed blue line.
Second voyage (1772–75)
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James Cook's 1777 South-Up map of South Georgia
Shortly after his return, Cook was promoted to the rank of Commander. Then once again he was commissioned by the Royal Society to search for the mythicalTerra Australis. On his first voyage, Cook had demonstrated by circumnavigating New Zealand that it was not attached to a larger landmass to the south; and although by charting almost the entire eastern coastline of Australia he had shown it to be continental in size, the Terra Australis being sought was supposed to lie further to the south. Despite this evidence to the contrary, Dalrymple and others of the Royal Society still believed that this massive southern continent should exist.
Cook commanded HMS Resolution on this voyage, while Tobias Furneauxcommanded its companion ship, HMS Adventure. Cook's expeditioncircumnavigated the globe at a very high southern latitude, becoming one of the first to cross the Antarctic Circle on 17 January 1773. He also surveyed, mapped and took possession for Britain of South Georgia explored by Anthony de la Roché in 1675, discovered and named Clerke Rocks and the South Sandwich Islands("Sandwich Land"). In the Antarctic fog, Resolution and Adventure became separated. Furneaux made his way to New Zealand, where he lost some of his men during an encounter with Māori, and eventually sailed back to Britain, while Cook continued to explore the Antarctic, reaching 71°10'S on 31 January 1774.
Cook almost encountered the mainland of Antarctica, but turned back north towards Tahiti to resupply his ship. He then resumed his southward course in a second fruitless attempt to find the supposed continent. On this leg of the voyage he brought with him a young Tahitian named Omai, who proved to be somewhat less knowledgeable about the Pacific than Tupaia had been on the first voyage. On his return voyage, in 1774 he landed at the Friendly Islands, Easter Island, Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, and Vanuatu. His reports upon his return home put to rest the popular myth of Terra Australis.
Another accomplishment of the second voyage was the successful employment of the Larcum Kendall K1 chronometer, which enabled Cook to calculate his longitudinal position with much greater accuracy. Cook's log was full of praise for the watch and the charts of the southern Pacific Ocean he made with its use were remarkably accurate – so much so that copies of them were still in use in the mid-20th century.
Upon his return, Cook was promoted to the rank of Captain and given an honorary retirement from the Royal Navy, as an officer in theGreenwich Hospital. His acceptance was reluctant, insisting that he be allowed to quit the post if the opportunity for active duty presented itself. His fame now extended beyond the Admiralty and he was also made a Fellow of the Royal Society and awarded the Copley Gold Medal, painted by Nathaniel Dance-Holland, dined with James Boswell and described in the House of Lords as "the first navigator in Europe". But he could not be kept away from the sea. A third voyage was planned to find the Northwest Passage. Cook travelled to the Pacific and hoped to travel east to the Atlantic, while a simultaneous voyage travelled the opposite way.
Third voyage (1776–79) and death
A statue of James Cook stands in Waimea, Kauai commemorating his first contact with the Hawaiian Islands at the town's harbour on January 1778
On his last voyage, Cook once again commanded HMS Resolution, while Captain Charles Clerkecommanded HMS Discovery. Ostensibly the voyage was planned to return Omai to Tahiti; this is what the general public believed, as he had become a favourite curiosity in London. Principally the purpose of the voyage was an attempt to discover the famed Northwest Passage. After returning Omai, Cook travelled north and in 1778 became the first European to visit the Hawaiian Islands. In passing and after initial landfall in January 1778 at Waimea harbour, Kauai, Cook named the archipelago the "Sandwich Islands" after the fourth Earl of Sandwich, the acting First Lord of the Admiralty.
From the South Pacific, he went northeast to explore the west coast of North America north of the Spanish settlements in Alta California. He made landfall at approximately 44°30′ north latitude, near Cape Foulweather on the Oregon coast, which he named. Bad weather forced his ships south to about 43° northbefore they could begin their exploration of the coast northward. He unknowingly sailed past the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and soon after entered Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island. He anchored near the First Nations village of Yuquot. Cook's two ships spent about a month in Nootka Sound, from 29 March to 26 April 1778, in what Cook called Ship Cove, now Resolution Cove, at the south end of Bligh Island, about 5 miles (8.0 km) east across Nootka Sound from Yuquot, a Nuu-chah-nulth village (whose chief Cook did not identify but may have been Maquinna). Relations between Cook's crew of the people of Yuquot were cordial if sometimes strained. In trading, the people of Yuquot demanded much more valuable items than the usual trinkets that had worked for Cook's crew in Hawaii. Metal objects were much desired, but the lead, pewter, and tin traded at first soon fell into disrepute. The most valuable items the British received in trade were sea otter pelts. Over the month long stay the Yuquot "hosts" essentially controlled the trade with the British vessels, instead of vice versa. Generally the natives visited the British vessels at Resolution Cove instead of the British visiting the village of Yuquot at Friendly Cove.
After leaving Nootka Sound, Cook explored and mapped the coast all the way to the Bering Strait, on the way identifying what came to be known as Cook Inlet in Alaska. It has been said that, in a single visit, Cook charted the majority of the North American northwest coastline on world maps for the first time, determined the extent of Alaska and closed the gaps in Russian (from the West) and Spanish (from the South) exploratory probes of the Northern limits of the Pacific.
The Bering Strait proved to be impassable, although he made several attempts to sail through it. He became increasingly frustrated on this voyage, and perhaps began to suffer from a stomach ailment; it has been speculated that this led to irrational behaviour towards his crew, such as forcing them to eat walrus meat, which they found inedible.
Cook returned to Hawaiʻi in 1779. After sailing around the archipelago for some eight weeks, he made landfall at Kealakekua Bay, on 'Hawaiʻi Island', largest island in the Hawaiian Archipelago. Cook's arrival coincided with the Makahiki, a Hawaiian harvest festival of worship for the Polynesian god Lono. Indeed the form of Cook's ship, HMS Resolution, or more particularly the mast formation, sails and rigging, resembled certain significant artefacts that formed part of the season of worship. Similarly, Cook's clockwise route around the island of Hawai'i before making landfall resembled the processions that took place in a clockwise direction around the island during the Lono festivals. It has been argued (most extensively by Marshall Sahlins) that such coincidences were the reasons for Cook's (and to a limited extent, his crew's) initial deification by some Hawaiians who treated Cook as an incarnation of Lono. Though this view was first suggested by members of Cook's expedition, the idea that any Hawaiians understood Cook to be Lono, and the evidence presented in support of it was challenged in 1992.
Waimea on the island of Kauai, as seen from the ocean. Waimea was Cook's first landing point in Hawaiʻi in 1778.
After a month's stay, Cook got under sail again to resume his exploration of the Northern Pacific. However, shortly after leaving Hawaiʻi Island, the foremast of the Resolution broke and the ships returned to Kealakekua Bay for repairs. It has been hypothesised that the return to the islands by Cook's expedition was not just unexpected by the Hawaiians, but also unwelcome because the season of Lono had recently ended (presuming that they associated Cook with Lono and Makahiki). In any case, tensions rose and a number of quarrels broke out between the Europeans and Hawaiians. On 14 February at Kealakekua Bay, some Hawaiians took one of Cook's small boats. Normally, as thefts were quite common in Tahiti and the other islands, Cook would have taken hostages until the stolen articles were returned. Indeed, he attempted to take hostage theKing of Hawaiʻi, Kalaniʻōpuʻu. The Hawaiians prevented this, and Cook's men had to retreat to the beach. As Cook turned his back to help launch the boats, he was struck on the head by the villagers and then stabbed to death as he fell on his face in the surf. Hawaiian tradition says that he was killed by a chief named Kalanimanokahoowaha. The Hawaiians dragged his body away. Four of the Marines with Cook were also killed and two wounded in the confrontation.
The Death of Captain James Cook, 14 February 1779, an unfinished painting byJohann Zoffany, circa 1795.
The esteem in which he was nevertheless held by the Hawaiians resulted in his body being retained by their chiefs and elders. Following the practice of the time, Cook's body underwent funerary rituals similar to those reserved for the chiefs and highest elders of the society. The body was disembowelled, baked to facilitate removal of the flesh, and the bones were carefully cleaned for preservation as religious icons in a fashion somewhat reminiscent of the treatment of European saints in the Middle Ages. Some of Cook's remains, disclosing some corroborating evidence to this effect, were eventually returned to the British for a formal burial at sea following an appeal by the crew.
Clerke took over the expedition and made a final attempt to pass through the Bering Strait. Following the death of Clerke, Resolution and Discovery returned home in October 1780 commanded by John Gore, a veteran of Cook's first voyage, and Captain James King. Cook's account of his third and final voyage was completed upon their return by King.
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A statue of James Cook inGreenwich, London
John Webber's Captain Cook, oil on canvas, 1776
A number of the junior officers who served under Cook went on to distinctive accomplishments of their own.William Bligh, Cook's sailing master, was given command of HMS Bounty in 1787 to sail to Tahiti and return with breadfruit. Bligh is most known for the mutiny of his crew which resulted in his being set adrift in 1789. He later became governor of New South Wales, where he was subject of another mutiny — the only successful armed takeover of an Australian colonial government. George Vancouver, one of Cook'smidshipmen, later led a voyage of exploration to the Pacific Coast of North America from 1791 to 1794.George Dixon sailed under Cook on his third expedition, and later commanded an expedition of his own.
Cook's 12 years sailing around the Pacific Ocean contributed much to European knowledge of the area. Several islands such as Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) were encountered for the first time by Europeans, and his more accurate navigational charting of large areas of the Pacific was a major achievement.
To create accurate maps, latitude and longitude need to be known. Navigators had been able to work outlatitude accurately for centuries by measuring the angle of the sun or a star above the horizon with an instrument such as a backstaff or quadrant. Longitude was more difficult to measure accurately because it requires precise knowledge of the time difference between points on the surface of the earth. Earth turns a full 360 degrees relative to the sun each day. Thus longitude corresponds to time: 15 degrees every hour, or 1 degree every 4 minutes.
Cook gathered accurate longitude measurements during his first voyage due to his navigational skills, the help of astronomer Charles Green and by using the newly published Nautical Almanac tables, via the lunar distance method — measuring the angular distance from the moon to either the sun during daytime or one of eight bright stars during night-time to determine the time at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and comparing that to his local time determined via the altitude of the sun, moon, or stars. On his second voyage Cook used the K1 chronometer made by Larcum Kendall, which was the shape of a large pocket watch, 13 cm (5 inches) in diameter. It was a copy of the H4 clock made by John Harrison, which proved to be the first to keep accurate time at sea when used on the ship Deptford's journey to Jamaica, 1761–1762.
Ever the observer, Cook was the first European to have extensive contact with various people of the Pacific. He correctly concluded there was a relationship among all the people in the Pacific, despite their being separated by thousands of miles of ocean (see Malayo-Polynesian languages). In New Zealand the coming of Cook is often used to signify the onset of colonisation.
Cook succeeded in circumnavigating the world on his first voyage without losing a single man to scurvy, an unusual accomplishment at the time. He tested several preventive measures but the most important was frequent replenishment of fresh food.
James Cook also came up with the theory that Polynesians originated from Asia, which was later proved to be correct by scientist Bryan Sykes.
Cook was accompanied by many scientists, whose observations and discoveries added to the importance of the voyages. Joseph Banks, a botanist, went on the first voyage along with fellow botanist Daniel Solander from Sweden. Between them they collected over 3,000 plant species. Banks became one of the strongest promoters of the settlement of Australia by the British, based on his own personal observations.
There were several artists on the first voyage. Sydney Parkinson was involved in many of the drawings, completing 264 drawings before his death near the end of the voyage. They were of immense scientific value to British botanists. Cook's second expedition included the artist William Hodges, who produced notable landscape paintings of Tahiti, Easter Island, and other locations.
His contributions were recognised during this era. In 1779, while the American colonies were at war with Britain in their war for independence,Benjamin Franklin wrote to captains of American warships at sea, recommending that if they came into contact with Cook's vessel, to:
...not consider her an enemy, nor suffer any plunder to be made of the effects contained in her, nor obstruct her immediate return to England by detaining her or sending her into any other part of Europe or to America; but that you treat the said Captain Cook and his people with all civility and kindness, . . . as common friends to mankind.
Captain Cook memorial statue at the Catani Gardens St Kilda, Victoria, Australia
The site where he was killed in Hawaii is marked by a white obelisk and about 25 square feet (2.3 m2) of land around it is chained off. This land, though in Hawaii, has been given to the United Kingdom. Therefore, the site is officially a part of the UK. With the jurisdictions reversed exactly the same sort of situation exists at Runnymede where the U.S. has extraterritorial jurisdiction over a monument to John F. Kennedy. A nearby town is named Captain Cook, Hawaii as well as several businesses.
Cook appeared on a United States coin, the 1928 Hawaiian Sesquicentennial half dollar. Minted during the celebration marking the 150th anniversary of his discovery of the islands, its low mintage (10,008) has made this example of Early United States commemorative coins both scarce and expensive.
The first tertiary education institution in North Queensland, Australia was named after him, withJames Cook University opening in Townsville in 1970. Numerous other institutions, landmarks and place names reflect the importance of Cook's contribution to knowledge of geography. These also include the Cook Islands, the Cook Strait,Cook Inlet, and the Cook crater on the Moon.
This coat of arms of James Cook was granted by King George III to Cook's widow in 1785, "to be borne by his descendants and 'placed on any monument or otherwise to his memory.'"
Tributes also abound in post-industrial Middlesbrough, and include a primary school, shopping squareand the Bottle 'O Notes a public artwork by Claes Oldenburg erected in the town's Central Gardens in 1993. His nearby birthplace of Marton is the location of both the James Cook University Hospital, a teaching hospital, and the Captain Cook Birthplace Museum. The Royal Research Ship RRS James Cook was built in 2006 to replace the RRS Charles Darwin in the UK's Royal Research Fleet.
Aoraki/Mount Cook, the highest summit in New Zealand, is named for him. Another Mount Cook is on the border between the US state of Alaska and the Canadian Yukon Territory, and is designated Boundary Peak 182 as one of the official Boundary Peaks of the Hay–Herbert Treaty. The US Space Shuttle Endeavour is named after Cook's ship, HMS Endeavour.
In Australian rhyming slang the expression "Captain Cook" means "look".
A monument to Capt. Cook stands on Easby Moor overlooking his boyhood village of Great Ayton.
Antimonial cup, one owned by him.
Australian places named by James Cook
Death of Cook — Painting depicting the event
Stepney Historical Trust
The Vache, site of monument to Captain James Cook erected by Admiral Hugh Palliser, a one time owner of the estate.
European and American voyages of scientific exploration
^ Lewis, Wendy, Simon Balderstone and John Bowan (2006).Events That Shaped Australia. New Holland.ISBN 9781741104929.
^ a b James Cook at the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
^ a b c d e f g h i j k per Collingridge (2002)
^ a b c Rigby & van der Merwe 2002, p25.
^ Collingridge 2003, p15.
^ a b c d per Horwitz (2003)
^ a b c Rigby & van der Merwe, p27.
^ Famous 18th century people of Barking and Dagenham Info Sheet #22, LB Barking & Dagenham
^ a b c G. Williams (2002)
^ Life in the Royal Navy (1755–1767), The Captain Cook Society: Cook's Log, by Paul Capper 1985–1996
^ Dean & Kemp, Oxford Companion of Ships and the Sea (Oxford U Press, 2005)
^ Williams, Glyn (1 August 2002). "Captain Cook: Explorer, Navigator and Pioneer". Empire and Seapower. BBC. Retrieved 25 January 2007.
^ Rigby and van der Merwe 2002, p. 30
^ At this time, the International Date Line had yet to be agreed, and so, the dates in Cook's journal are a day earlier than those accepted today.
^ Cook's journal: daily entry for 22 April 1770 National Library of Australia
^ "Once were warriors". smh.com.au. 11 November 2002. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
^ Robson (2004), p. 81.
^ Captain Cook: Obsession and Discovery TV documentary, Part 2
^ Hough 1994, page 217
^ Captain James Cook: His voyages of exploration and the men that accompanied him (National Maritime Museum) accessed 10 October 2007
^ Beaglehole (1974: 444)
^ Hayes, Derek (1999). Historical Atlas of the Pacific Northwest: Maps of exploration and Discovery. Sasquatch Books. pp. 42–43. ISBN 1-57061-215-3.
^ "Resolution Cove". BC Geographical Names.
^ Fisher, Robert; Hugh Johnston (1979). Captain James Cook and his Times. Taylor & Francis. pp. 81, 86, 90, 96.ISBN 9780709900504.
^ a b c G. Obeyesekere, The Apotheosis of Captain Cook (1992)
^ M. Sahlins, Islands of History (1985), University of Chicago Press.
^ V. Collingridge (2003) page 410 et seq. Obsession and Betrayal
^ Sheldon Dibble (1909). History of the Sandwich Islands. Honolulu: Thomas George Thrum. p. 61.
^ "The Death of Captain James... (BHC0424) – National Maritime Museum". National Maritime Museum. Retrieved 21 November 2010.
^ V. Collingridge (2003) page 413 Obsession and Betrayal
^ Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe (2006). Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 297. ISBN 0-393-06259-7.
^ Sykes, Bryan (2001). The Seven Daughters of Eve. Norton Publishing: New York City, NY and London, England. ISBN 0-393-02018-5.
^ "Worldly Ways, Cook Islands". Benjamin Franklin. Twin Cities Public Television. 2002. Retrieved 11 June 2007. Unknown to Franklin, Cook had met his death a month before this "passport" was written.
^ Wagner, A.R. (1972). Historic Heraldry of Britain. London: Phillimore & Co Ltd
^ Profile of Captain Cook Primary School at BBC News
^ "Captain Cook Shopping Square". Captaincookshopping.com. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
^ Sidney John Baker (1966). The Australian Language: An Examination of the English Language and English Speech as Used in Australia, from Convict Days to the Present. Melbourne: Sun Books. p. 360.
Aughton, Peter. 2002, Endeavour: The Story of Captain Cook's First Great Epic Voyage. Cassell & Co., London.
Beaglehole, John, biographer of Cook and editor of his Journals.
Collingridge, Vanessa. Feb. 2003 Captain Cook: The Life, Death and Legacy of History's Greatest Explorer, Ebury Press, ISBN 0-09-188898-0
Edwards, Philip, ed. 2003, James Cook: The Journals. Prepared from the original manuscripts by J. C. Beaglehole 1955–67. Penguin Books, London.
Forster, Georg. A Voyage Round the World, ed. 1986 (published first 1777 as: A Voyage round the World in His Britannic Majesty's Sloop Resolution, Commanded by Capt. James Cook, during the Years, 1772, 3, 4, and 5), Wiley-VCH (1 January 1986). ISBN 978-3-05-000180-7
Horwitz, Tony. Oct. 2003, Blue Latitudes: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before, Bloomsbury, …
This article is about the United States president. For other uses, see Thomas Jefferson (disambiguation).
3rd President of the United States
In officeMarch 4, 1801 – March 4, 1809
Aaron BurrGeorge Clinton
2nd Vice President of the United States
In officeMarch 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
1st United States Secretary of State
In officeMarch 22, 1790 – December 31, 1793
John Jay (Acting)
United States Ambassador to France
In officeMay 17, 1785 – September 26, 1789
Congress of the Confederation
Delegate from Virginia to theCongress of the Confederation
In officeNovember 1, 1783 – May 7, 1784
Richard Henry Lee
2nd Governor of Virginia
In officeJune 1, 1779 – June 3, 1781
Delegate from Virginia to theSecond Continental Congress
In officeJune 20, 1775 – September 26, 1776
April 13, 1743Shadwell, Colony of Virginia
July 4, 1826 (aged 83)Charlottesville, Virginia
Martha Wayles Skelton
College of William and Mary
Classic engraving of Jefferson
1st Presidential Commemorative of 1904.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–1809) and the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776). An influential Founding Father, Jefferson envisioned America as a great "Empire of Liberty" that would promote republicanism.
Jefferson served as the wartime Governor of Virginia (1779–1781), barely escaping capture by the British in 1781.  Many people were not pleased with his tenure and in the next election he did not win office again in Virginia.  From mid-1784 through late 1789 Jefferson lived outside the United States. He served in Paris initially as a commissioner to help negotiate commercial treaties. In May 1785 he succeeded Benjamin Franklin as the U.S. Minister to France.
He was the first United States Secretary of State (1789–1793) under George Washington and advised him against a national bank and the Jay Treaty. He was the second Vice President (1797–1801) under John Adams. Winning on an anti-federalist platform, Jefferson took the oath of office and became President of the United States in 1801. As president he negotiated theLouisiana Purchase (1803), and sent the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) to explore the vast new territory and lands further west. Jefferson always distrusted Britain as a threat to American security; he rejected a renewal of the Jay Treaty that his ambassadors had negotiated in 1806 with Britain and promoted aggressive action, such as the embargo laws, that contributed to the already escalating tensions with Britain and France leading to war with Britain in 1812 after he left office.
Jefferson idealized the independent yeoman farmer as exemplar of republican virtues, distrusted cities and financiers, and favored states' rights and a limited federal government. Jefferson supported the separation of church and state and was the author of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1779, 1786). Jefferson's revolutionary view on individual religious freedom and protection from government authority have generated much interest with modern scholars. He was the eponym of Jeffersonian democracy and the co-founder and leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, which dominated American politics for 25 years.
Born into a prominent planter family, Jefferson owned hundreds of slaves throughout his life; he held views on the racial inferiority of Africans common for this period in time. While historians long discounted accounts that Jefferson had an intimate relationship with his slaveSally Hemings, it is now widely held that he did and had six children by her.
Jefferson was a polymath who spoke five languages and could read two others. He was a major book collector with an enormous library, much of which he sold to the Library of Congress in 1814 after the British set fire to the Capitol which destroyed most of its works. He wrote more than sixteen thousand letters and was acquainted with nearly every influential person in America, and many throughout Europe. Jefferson is constantly rated by historical scholars as one of the greatest U.S. presidents.
1 Early life and education
2 Marriage and family
2.1 Wife and children
3 Political career from 1775 to 1800
3.1 Drafting a declaration
3.2 State legislator
3.3 Governor of Virginia
3.4 Notes on the State of Virginia
3.5 Member of Congress
3.6 Minister to France
3.7 Secretary of State
3.8 Break from office
3.9 Election of 1796 and Vice Presidency
3.10 Election of 1800
4 Presidency 1801–1809
4.1 Administration, Cabinet and Supreme Court appointments
4.2 First Barbary War
4.3 Louisiana Purchase
4.4 Lewis and Clark Expedition
4.5 West Point
4.6 Other involvements
4.7 Second Term
5 Father of a university
6.1 Views of slaves and blacks
7 Life as a widower
7.1 Sally Hemings and her children
8 Interests, activities, inventions, and improvements
9 Political philosophy and views
11 Native American policy
11.1 Acculturation and assimilation
11.2 Forced Indian relocation
13 Reputation and memorials
15 See also
17.2 Politics and ideas
17.4 Legacy and historiography
17.5 Primary sources
18 External links
Early life and education
Main article: Ancestry of Thomas Jefferson
The third of ten children, Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743 into the Randolph family that linked him to some of the most prominent individuals in Virginia. His mother was Jane Randolph, daughter of Isham Randolph of Dungeness, a ship's captain and sometime planter, first cousin to Peyton Randolph, and granddaughter of wealthy English and Scottish gentry. Jefferson's father was Peter Jefferson, a planter and surveyor in Albemarle County (Shadwell, then Edge Hill, Virginia.) He was of possible Welsh descent, although this remains unclear. When Colonel William Randolph, an old friend of Peter Jefferson, died in 1745, Peter assumed executorship and personal charge of William Randolph's estate in Tuckahoe as well as his infant son, Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr. That year the Jeffersons relocated to Tuckahoe, where they would remain for the next seven years before returning to their home in Albemarle in 1752. Peter Jefferson was appointed to the colone]cy of the county, an important position at the time.
When Thomas Jefferson was 22, his oldest sister Jane died at the age of 25 on October 1, 1765. He fell into a period of deep mourning, as he was already saddened by the absence of his sisters Mary, who had been married several years to Thomas Bolling, and Martha, who had wed in July to Dabney Carr. Both had moved to their husbands' residences. Only Jefferson's younger siblings Elizabeth, Lucy, and the two toddlers, were at home. He drew little comfort from the younger ones, as they did not provide him with the same intellectual stimulation as the older sisters had.
In 1752, Jefferson began attending a local school run by a Scottish Presbyterian minister. At the age of nine, Jefferson began studying Latin,Greek, and French; he learned to ride horses, and began to appreciate the study of nature. He studied under the Reverend James Maury from 1758 to 1760 near Gordonsville, Virginia. While boarding with Maury's family, he studied history, science and the classics.
At age 16, Jefferson entered the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, and first met the law professor George Wythe, who became his influential mentor. For two years he studied mathematics, metaphysics, and philosophy under Professor William Small, who introduced the enthusiastic Jefferson to the writings of the British Empiricists, including John Locke, Francis Bacon, and Isaac Newton. He also improved his French, Greek, and violin. A diligent student, Jefferson displayed an avid curiosity in all fields and graduated in 1762 with highest honors.
He read law while working as a law clerk for Wythe. They also read a wide variety of English classics and political works. Jefferson was admitted to the Virginia bar five years later in 1767.
Throughout his life, books played a vital role in Jefferson's education. Even during the American Revolution and while minister to France, Jefferson collected and accumulated thousands of books for his library at Monticello. A significant portion of Jefferson's library was also bequeathed to him in the will of George Wythe who himself had an extensive library. Always eager for more knowledge, Jefferson's education would continue throughout most of his life. Jefferson once stated "I cannot live without books".
Jefferson handled many cases as a lawyer in colonial Virginia, and was very active from 1768 to 1773. Jefferson's client list included members of the Virginia's elite families, including members of his mother's family, the Randolphs.
In 1768 Thomas Jefferson started the construction of Monticello, a neoclassical mansion. Since childhood, Jefferson had always wanted to build a beautiful mountaintop home within sight of Shadwell. Jefferson fell greatly in debt by spending lavishly over the years on Monticello in what was a continuing project to create a neoclassical environment, based on his study of the architect Andrea Palladio and the classical orders. 
Besides practicing law, Jefferson represented Albemarle County in the Virginia House of Burgesses beginning in 1769. Wythe also served at the same time. Following the passage of theCoercive Acts by the British Parliament in 1774, he wrote a set of resolutions against the acts, which were expanded into A Summary View of the Rights of British America, his first published work. Previous criticism of the Coercive Acts had focused on legal and constitutional issues, but Jefferson offered the radical notion that the colonists had the natural right to govern themselves. Jefferson also argued that Parliament was the legislature of Great Britain only, and had no legislative authority in the colonies. The paper was intended to serve as instructions for the Virginia delegation of the First Continental Congress, but Jefferson's ideas proved to be too radical for that body.
Marriage and family
Wife and children
In 1772, at age 29 Jefferson married the 23-year-old widow Martha Wayles Skelton. They had six children, only two of whom survived to adulthood. Only their oldest daughter Martha lived beyond age 25.
Martha Washington Jefferson (1772–1836), who married Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., future governor of Virginia. They had twelve children, eleven of whom survived to adulthood.
Jane Jefferson (1774–1775)
stillborn or unnamed son (1777)
Mary Wayles Jefferson (1778–1804), married her cousin John Wayles Eppes, son of Martha's sister, Elizabeth Wayles Eppes. Mary died at age 25 after the birth of her third child; only their son Francis W. Eppes survived to adulthood. Jefferson made his grandson the designated heir of Poplar Forest, originally intended for Mary. In 1829 Francis Eppes moved to Florida, where he had a cotton plantation until the Civil War.
Lucy Elizabeth (1780–1781)
Lucy Elizabeth (1782–1785) (it was the tradition to name subsequent children after one who had died, particularly when the family was also trying to pass down family names). Lucy died while Jefferson was in Paris, prompting him to have his youngest daughter Polly (Mary) sent to him, who was then age nine.
Martha Jefferson died on September 6, 1782, a few months after the birth of her last child. Jefferson never remarried. At his wife's bedside when she died, Jefferson was deeply upset after her death, and often rode on secluded roads to mourn for his wife.
Political career from 1775 to 1800
Rudolph Evans' statue of Jefferson with excerpts from the Declaration of Independence to the right
Drafting a declaration
Jefferson served as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress beginning in June 1775, soon after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War. When Congress began considering a resolution of independence in June 1776, Jefferson was appointed to a five-man committee to prepare a declaration to accompany the resolution. The committee selected Jefferson to write the first draft probably because of his reputation as a writer. The assignment was considered routine; no one at the time thought that it was a major responsibility. Jefferson completed a draft in consultation with other committee members, drawing on his own proposed draft of the Virginia Constitution, George Mason's draft of the Virginia Declaration of Rights, and other sources.
Jefferson showed his draft to the committee, which made some final revisions, and after Franklin and Adams suggested a few changes, presented it to Congress on June 28, 1776. After voting in favor of the resolution of independence on July 2, Congress turned its attention to the declaration. Over three days of fiery debate, Congress made a few changes in wording and deleted nearly a fourth of the text, most notably a passage critical of the slave trade, changes that Jefferson resented. During the three day debate Jefferson spoke not a word for or against any of the revisions. On July 4, 1776, the wording of theDeclaration of Independence was ratified. Before the signing a prayer was said and in silence the delegates to the convention applied their signature to the document, an act that would be considered treason by the Crown and which would cost them their lives should the revolution fail. The Declaration would eventually become Jefferson's major claim to fame, and his eloquent preamble became an enduring statement of human rights.
In John Trumbull's painting Declaration of Independence, the five-man drafting committee is presenting its work to the Continental Congress. Jefferson is the tall figure in the center laying the Declaration on the desk.
In September 1776, Jefferson returned to Virginia and was elected to the newVirginia House of Delegates. During his term in the House, Jefferson set out to reform and update Virginia's system of laws to reflect its new status as a democratic state. He drafted 126 bills in three years, including laws to abolish primogeniture, establish freedom of religion, and streamline the judicial system. In 1778, Jefferson's "Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge" and subsequent efforts to reduce clerical control led to some small changes at William and Mary College. While in the state legislature Jefferson proposed a bill to eliminate capital punishment for all crimes except murder and treason. His effort to end the death penalty law was defeated.
Governor of Virginia
In 1779, at the age of thirty-six, Jefferson was elected Governor of Virginia and served from 1779–1781. At this time the now united colonies were in the middle of the American Revolutionary War with Britain. Georgia had fallen helpless into the hands of the British, South Carolina was invaded, and Charleston threatened. In his capacity as Governor Jefferson made efforts to prepare Richmond for attack by moving all arms, military supplies and records from Richmond to a foundry located five miles outside of town. Arnold learned of this transfer and was rapidly approaching the foundry. Jefferson then attempted to devise a way for their removal to Westham, seven miles to the north, but he was too late. Arnold's men quickly descended upon and burned the foundry and then proceeded on towards Westham. Upon finding the Prussian ally and military adviser, Baron von Steuben, Arnold chose to return to Richmond where he burned much of the city the following morning. Jefferson at later points in his political career would be criticized, especially by his political opponents, for failing to defend Richmond during this time. 
In January of 1781 Benedict Arnold led an armada of British ships and with 1600 British regulars conducted raids along the James River. Later he would join Lord Cornwallis whose troops were now marching across Virginia from the south. In advance Cornwallis dispatched British officer Banastre Tarleton on a secret expedition to Monticello to capture then Governor Jefferson. Quickly making his way at night Tarleton hoped to catch Jefferson by surprise, however in the midst of the activity and havoc of the invasion a heroic action by a young Virginian named Jack Jouett, a captain in the Virginia militia, thwarted the British capture of Virginia's governor. Jouett had spotted the assembly and departure of Tarleton and his men and making his way to Monticello, by way of various back roads of which he was familiar, arrived at Montecello in time to warn Jefferson, members of the Virginia Assembly and citizens at large.  With little warning Jefferson and his family fled and managed to escape, leaving his home to be captured by British troops. A detachment of Cornwallis' troops, in their march north from the Carolinas, seized the estate along with another plantation which Jefferson owned on the James River. British troops destroyed all his crops, burnt his barns and fences, drove off the cattle, seized all usable horses, cut the throats of the colts, and after setting fires left the plantation a smouldering, blackened waste. Twenty-seven slaves were also captured to which Jefferson later replied.. "Had he carried off the slaves to give them freedom, he would have done right." 
As governor in 1780, he transferred the state capital from Williamsburg to Richmond. He continued to advocate educational reforms at the College of William and Mary, including the nation's first student-policed honor code. In 1779, at Jefferson's behest, William and Mary appointed George Wythe to be the first professor of law in an American university. Many people disliked his tenure, and he did not win office again in Virginia. However, in 1783 he was appointed to Congress by the state legislature.
Notes on the State of Virginia
In the Fall of 1780, Gov. Thomas Jefferson was given a list of 22 questions, by Secretary of the French legation to the United States François Marbois, intended to gather pertinent information on the American colonies. Jefferson's responses to Marbois' "Queries" would become known as Notes on the State of Virginia. Jefferson, scientifically trained, was a member of the American Philosophical Society and had extensive knowledge of western lands from Virginia to Illinois. In a course of 5 years, Jefferson enthusiastically devoted his intellectual energy to the book, which discussed contemporary scientific knowledge, and Virginia's history, politics, and ethnography. Jefferson was aided by Thomas Walker, George R. Clark, and U.S. geographer Thomas Hutchins. The book was first published in France in 1785 and in England in 1787.
Member of Congress
Jefferson was a member of Congress at the time American had won its independence and signed the Treaty of Paris in 1783. The Virginia state legislature appointed Jefferson to the Congress of the Confederation on June 6 of that year, his term beginning on November 1. He was a member of the committee formed to set foreign exchange rates, and in that capacity he recommended that the American currency be based on the decimal system. Jefferson also recommended setting up the Committee of the States, to function as the executive arm of Congress when Congress was not in session. He left Congress when he was elected a minister plenipotentiary on May 7, 1784.
See also: Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measures of the United States
Minister to France
Memorial plaque on the Champs-Élysées, Paris, France, marking where Jefferson lived while he was Minister to France. The plaque was erected after World War I to commemorate the centenary of Jefferson's founding of the University of Virginia.
In May of 1784 Congress appointed Jefferson to act as Minister to France, serving from 1785 to 1789, replacing Benjamin Franklin, who was now well into his senior years. Franklin was much admired in France by both dignitary and common man alike and so it was a delicate matter for Jefferson to step into his position. When the French Foreign minister Count de Vergennescommented to Jefferson, "You replace Monsieur Franklin I hear", Jefferson replied, "I succeed him, no man can replace him. 
While serving in France Jefferson did not attend the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, though he followed the proceedings by correspondence, and was supportive of it.
Beginning in early September 1785, Jefferson collaborated by mail with John Adams in London to outline an anti-piracy treaty with Morocco.  Their work culminated in a treaty that was ratified by Congress on July 18, 1787 and is still in force today, making it the longest unbroken treaty relationship in U.S. history.
He enjoyed the architecture, arts, and the salon culture of Paris. He often dined with many of the city's most prominent people, but sided with the revolutionaries in 1789 French Revolution.While in Paris, Jefferson corresponded with a number of individuals who had important roles in events leading up to the French Revolution. These included marquis de Lafayette and comte de Mirabeau, a popular pamphleteer who repeated ideals that had been the basis for the American Revolution.
Jefferson brought some of his slaves to serve the household, including James Hemings for training as a French chef. After his youngest daughter died, he requested that a young woman slave accompany his daughter Polly to France. Sally Hemings was chosen to travel with Polly, and lived with the Jefferson household for about two years in Paris. It is generally held by modern day scholars that Jefferson began a long-term relationship with Sally Hemings while in Paris; that is what their son Madison Hemings reported in his 1873 memoir, however there are no known accounts from Sally Hemings herself.
Secretary of State
In September of 1789 Jefferson returned to America from France with his daughter. Immediately upon his return President Washington wrote to him urging him to accept a seat in his Cabinet as Secretary of State. After a brief conference Jefferson accepted the appointment.
As George Washington's Secretary of State, (1790–1793) Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton argued over national fiscal policy, especially the funding of the debts of the war. Jefferson later compared Hamilton and the Federalists with "Royalism", and stated the "Hamiltonians were panting after...crowns, coronets and mitres." Jefferson and James Madison founded and led the Democratic-Republican Party. He worked with Madison and his campaign manager John J. Beckley to build a nationwide network of Republican allies.
The French minister said in 1793: "Senator Morris and Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton...had the greatest influence over the President's mind, and that it was only with difficulty that he [Jefferson] counterbalanced their efforts."  Jefferson supported France against Britain when they fought in 1793. Jefferson believed that political success at home depended on the success of the French army in Europe. The French minister in 1793, Edmond-Charles Genêt, caused a crisis when he tried to influence public opinion in appealing to the people, something Jefferson tried to stop.
Break from office
Jefferson retired to Monticello in late 1793 where he continued to oppose the policies of Hamilton and Washington. However, the Jay Treaty of 1794, led by Hamilton, brought peace and trade with Britain – while Madison, with strong support from Jefferson, wanted, "to strangle the former mother country" without going to war. "It became an article of faith among Republicans that 'commercial weapons' would suffice to bring Great Britain to any terms the United States chose to dictate."
Even during the violence of the Reign of Terror, Jefferson refused to disavow the revolution because "To back away from France would be to undermine the cause of republicanism in America."
Election of 1796 and Vice Presidency
As the Democratic-Republican candidate in 1796 he lost to John Adams, but had enough electoral votes to become Vice President (1797–1801). He wrote a manual of parliamentary procedure, but otherwise avoided the Senate.
With the Quasi-War underway, the Federalists under John Adams started rebuilding the military, levied new taxes, and enacted the Alien and Sedition Acts. Jefferson interpreted the Alien and Sedition Acts as an effort to suppress Democratic-Republicans rather than dangerous enemy aliens, and were used to attack his party. Jefferson and Madison rallied support by anonymously writing the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which declared that the federal government had no right to exercise powers not specifically delegated to it by the states.
Election of 1800
Main article: United States presidential election, 1800
Working closely with Aaron Burr of New York, Jefferson rallied his party, attacking the new taxes especially, and ran for the Presidency in 1800. Before the passage of the Twelfth Amendment, a problem with the new union's electoral system arose. He tied with Burr for first place in the electoral college, leaving the House of Representatives (where the Federalists still had some power) to decide the election.
Hamilton convinced his party that Jefferson would be a lesser political evil than Burr and that such scandal within the electoral process would undermine the new constitution. On February 17, 1801, after thirty-six ballots, the House elected Jefferson President and Burr Vice President. Jefferson later removed Burr from the ticket in 1804 after Burr killed Hamilton in a duel.
Jefferson owed his election victory to the South's inflated number of Electors, which counted slaves under the three-fifths compromise.After his election in 1800, some called him the "Negro President", with critics like the Mercury and New-England Palladium of Boston that Jefferson had the gall to celebrate his election as a victory for democracy when he won "the temple of Liberty on the shoulders of slaves."
Main article: Presidency of Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson took the oath of Office on March 4, 1801, at a time when partisan strife between the Republican and Federalist parties was growing to alarming proportions. Regarded as the 'People's President' news of Jefferson's election was well received in most parts of the new country and was marked by celebrations throughout the Union. He was sworn in by Chief Justice John Marshall at the new Capitol in Washington DC. In contrast to the preceding president John Adams, Jefferson exhibited a dislike of formal etiquette. Unlike Washington, who arrived at his inauguration in a stagecoach drawn by six cream colored horses, Jefferson arrived alone on horseback without guard or escort. He was dressed plainly and after dismounting, retired his own horse himself.
The three major achievements of Jefferson's presidency were the Louisiana Purchase, the winning of the first U.S. war overseas (Barbary War), and the abolition of the slave trade.
Administration, Cabinet and Supreme Court appointments
The Jefferson Cabinet
Secretary of State
Secretary of Treasury
Secretary of War
Levi Lincoln, Sr.
Caesar A. Rodney
Secretary of the Navy
William Johnson – 1804
Henry Brockholst Livingston – 1807
Thomas Todd – 1807
States admitted to the Union:
Ohio – March 1, 1803
Painting of Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale(1805)
First Barbary War
Main article: Barbary Wars
When Jefferson became president in 1801, the United States was at the time paying $80,000 to the Barbary states as a 'tribute' for protection against North African piracy. For decades, the pirates had been capturing American ships and crew members and demanding huge ransoms for their release. Before Independence, from 1775 until 1783, American merchant ships were protected from the Barbary pirates by the naval and diplomatic influence of Great Britain. When the American Revolution began, American ships were protected by the 1778 alliance with France, which required the French nation to protect "American vessels and effects against all violence, insults, attacks ...". On December 20, 1777, Morocco's Sultan Mohammed III declared that the American merchant ships would be under the protection of the sultanate and could thus enjoy safe passage into the Mediterranean and along the coast. The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship stands as the U.S.'s oldest non-broken friendship treaty.The one with Morocco has been the longest-lasting treaty with a foreign power.
After the United States gained independence, it had to protect its own merchant vessels. It also had to pay $80,000 as tribute to the Barbary states, as did Britain and France at this time. When Tripoli made new demands on the new President for a prompt payment of $225,000 and an annual payment of $25,000, Jefferson refused. He decided it would be easier to fight the pirates than to continue to pay bribes. The pashaof Tripoli declared war on the United States and the First Barbary War began. As secretary of state and vice president, Jefferson had opposed funds for a Navy to be used for anything more than a coastal defense, however given American shipping interests in the Atlantic and Mediterranean, President Jefferson ordered a fleet of naval vessels to various points in the Mediterranean. He forced Tunis and Algiers into breaking their alliance with Tripoli and forcing it out of the fight. Jefferson also ordered five separate naval bombardments of Tripoli, which restored peace in the Mediterranean for a while.See also: Second Barbary War
In 1803 the United States under Jefferson bought the Louisiana Territory from France, doubling the size of the United States.  At the time France under Napoleon, whom Jefferson despised and feared, was facing imminent war against Britain and with bankruptcy. Jefferson sentJames Monroe and Robert R. Livingston to Paris in 1802 to purchase the city of New Orleans and adjacent coastal areas. At the request of Jefferson, a French noblemen named Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours, having close ties with both Jefferson and Napoleon, also helped negotiate the purchase with France. Napoleon was committed to affairs in France and was preparing for war with Britain on the home front and realized he could no longer defend the French territory in America. He astonished everyone by offering to sell the entire territory; the final price was a mere $15 million, which Treasure Secretary Albert Gallatin financed easily. Jefferson had acted contrary to his usual requirement of explicit Constitutional authority and the Federalists criticized him for acting without that authority, but this unique and rare opportunity could not be missed. 
Politically, the Louisiana Purchase would prove to be the most consequential executive decision in American history. Without realizing it at the time Jefferson had purchased the largest fertile tract of land on the planet, allowing the nation to be self sufficient. The purchase also changed the new nation's entire national security strategy by removing both British and French imperial ambitions in America. Opinions vary among historians as to who was the principle player in the purchase, some believing it was Napoleon, while others regard Jefferson's handling of the affair as brilliant as his Declaration of Independence. Others agree with Alexander Hamilton, Jefferson's arch rival, and contribute it to, "dumb luck". Still others concur that it was all of these things. 
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Jefferson had an avid interest in the sciences and had long entertained ideas of exploring the American frontier even before Louisiana was purchased from France. As such Jefferson was a member of the American Philosophical Society, founded in Philadelphia in 1743 byBenjamin Franklin, and served as its President from 1797 to 1815. By the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries the society was well established, staffed and equipped and whose resources were availed by Jefferson who in 1803 sent Meriwether Lewis to Philadelphia for instruction and counseling in botany, mathematics, surveying, astronomy, chemistry and map making, among other subjects.  On January 18, 1803, Jefferson sent a confidential letter to Congress asking for $2,500 to fund the expedition and on February 28, 1803, Congress appropriated the necessary funds for the Expedition.  In 1804 Jefferson sent the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806), which explored the new territory and opened the American West to settlement and produced a wealth of scientific and geographical knowledge.
Before this advent knowledge of the western part of the continent was scant and incomplete, limited to what had been learned from traders, trappers and various explorers. Jefferson had also hoped to find a water route to the Pacific and establish trade relations with the Indians of the West. The expedition was the first American expedition to the Pacific Coast. Led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, the expedition, consisting of about 45 men, had several goals, finding a "direct & practicable water communication across this continent, for the purposes of commerce" (the Northwest Passage). Jefferson directed the men to follow the rivers, map them, and collect scientific data. Jefferson also wanted to establish a U.S. claim of "Discovery" to the Pacific Northwest and Oregon territory by mapping and then documenting an American presence there before Europeans could get a chance to claim the land. The expedition reached the Pacific Ocean by November 1805 and on its return in 1806 it had fulfilled Jefferson's hopes by amassing a considerable body of new data concerning the topographical features of the county and its natural resources, providing details on the flora and fauna as well as the Indian tribes. He also commissioned the Pike Expedition to explore the central region of the Purchase, and the Red River Expedition (1806), which was much less successful.  
Ideas for a national institution for military education were founded during the American Revolution, but it wasn't until 1802 when Jefferson, following the advise of George Washington, John Adams and others,  finally convinced Congress to authorize the funding and building of a military academy at West Point on the Hudson River in New York. On March 16, 1802, Jefferson signed the Military Peace Establishment Act, directing that a corps of engineers be established and "stationed at West Point in the state of New York, and shall constitute a Military Academy."  The Act would provide well-trained officers for a professional army. The officers would be reliable republicans rather than a closed elite as in Europe, for the cadets were to be appointed by Congressmen, and thus exactly reflect the nation's politics. In May 1801 Secretary of War Henry Dearborn announced that the president had "decided in favor of the immediate establishment of a military school at West Point and also on the appointment of Major Jonathan Williams", grandnephew of Benjamin Franklin, to direct "the necessary arrangements, at that place for the commencement of the school." On July 4, 1802, the U.S. Military Academy at West Point formally commenced its role as an institution for scientific and military learning. 
He obtained the repeal of many federal taxes in his bid to rely more on customs revenue. He pardoned people imprisoned under the Alien and Sedition Acts, passed in John Adams' term. He repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801 and removed nearly all of Adams' "midnight judges" from office, which led to the Supreme Court deciding the important case of Marbury v. Madison. He also signed into law a bill that officially segregated the U.S. postal system by not allowing blacks to carry mail.