Land Surveying Basics and Fundamentals

Learn the Basics and Fundamentals of Land Surveying in this curated collection of surveying videos, photos and information to help new surveyors learn everything there is to know about the basics of Land Surveying.

Land Surveying Basics

Exploring the Basics and Fundamentals of Land Surveying

Surveying Basics in Photos and Documents

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For example I asked it to generate the user journey for performing a level loop and look at the output: 11. Research and Planning Stage: - The user starts by researching and planning the level loop survey to identify the required equipment and the area of the survey. - They consult maps, plot plans, and any other relevant documentation to determine the boundaries of the area to be surveyed. - The user also contacts any relevant parties, such as property owners or local authorities, to inform them about the survey. 2. Equipment Setup Stage: - The user sets up the necessary equipment, including the level instrument, tripod, and staff. - They ensure that the equipment is calibrated and leveled correctly to ensure accurate readings. 3. Initial Measurements Stage: - The user takes initial measurements, which involves taking readings from the level instrument and recording them on the field notes. - They measure the height of the instrument, the staff reading, and any other relevant data. 4. Level Loop Stage: - The user starts the level loop by taking readings at the first benchmark or control point. - They then move to the next benchmark or control point and repeat the measurements, ensuring that the instrument is level and the staff is correctly positioned. - The user continues this process until they return to the starting point, completing the level loop. 5. Data Analysis Stage: - The user performs data analysis, which involves processing the collected data to produce a level loop calculation. - They use specialized software or manual calculations to determine the elevation of each benchmark or control point. - The user also checks that the data is accurate and free from errors. 6. Reporting Stage: - The user creates a report that summarizes the level loop survey results. - The report includes information such as the area surveyed, the elevation of each benchmark or control point, and any relevant notes or observations. - The user may also create maps or diagrams to illustrate the survey results. 7. Review and Approval Stage: - The user reviews the report and ensures that it meets the required standards and specifications. - They may also seek approval from relevant parties, such as clients or local authorities, before finalizing the report. - The user then submits the report to the relevant parties and retains a copy for their records.. Research and Planning:
- The user identifies the need for performing a level loop in their land surveying project.
- They research the necessary equipment and techniques for performing a level loop.
- They plan the logistics and timeline for performing the level loop.
2. Preparation:
- The user gathers all of the necessary equipment, including a level, tripod, rod, and measuring tape.
- They ensure that all equipment is properly calibrated and functioning correctly.
- They select a suitable location for the level loop and prepare the area accordingly.
3. Performing the Level Loop:
- The user sets up the level on the tripod and adjusts it to ensure it is level.
- They set up the rod at the first point and take a reading.
- They move the rod to the next point and take another reading.
- They repeat this process until all desired points have been measured.
- They record all of the readings.



Illustration from JW Zollmann, Complete Guide to Geodesy or Practical Geometry, Hall 1744

In this method of earth measurement, the country is covered with a network of triangles (latin: triangula), which collide at their sides and whose corners are formed by high points such as church towers or distinctive hilltops.
At the beginning of a triangulation, a short distance is measured very precisely, from the ends of which a further point is aimed, which then forms the third corner of the first triangle. From each side of this first triangle now more points can be targeted and thus new triangles are formed.
A number of monuments are still reminiscent of the Gaussian land surveying:
the southern meridian sign in the Friedlander Forst, the Gaußturm on the Hohen Hagen and some observation points secured as monuments .

possible instrument errors

Ideally, the total station should meet the following requirements: a) Line of sight ZZ perpen- dicular to tilting axis KK b) Tilting axis KK perpen- dicular to vertical axis VV c) Vertical axis VV strictly vertical d) Vertical-circle reading precisely zero at the zenith If these conditions are not met, the following terms are used to describe the particular errors: a) Line-of-sight error, or colli- mation error c (deviation from the right angle bet- ween the line of sight and the tilting axis) b) Tilting-axis error a (devia- tion from the right angle between the tilting axis and the vertical axis) c) Vertical-axis tilt (angle between plumb line and vertical axis.

line leveling explained

In an excavation, a point B is to be set out at a height ∆H = 1.00 metre below street level (Point A). If the points A and B are widely separated, the height difference between them is determined by line levelling with target distances generally between 30 and 50 metres. Pace out the distances between the instrument and the two staffs; they need to be about the same. 1. Set up the instrument at S1. 2. Set up the staff precisely vertically at point B; read off and record the height (backsight R). 3. Set up the staff at the turning point 1 (ground plate or prominent ground point); read off and record the height (foresight V). 4. Set up the instrument at S2 (the staff remains at the turning point 1). 5. Carefully rotate the staff at the turning point 1 so that it faces the instrument. 6. Read off the backsight and continue. The height difference between A and B is equal to the sum of the backsight and the foresight.

two peg test inspecting line of sight

In new levels, the com- pensator has been adjusted at room temperature, so that the line of sight is hori- zontal even if the instru- ment is tilted slightly. This situation changes if the temperature fluctuates by more than ten or fifteen degrees, after a long jour- ney, or if the instrument is subjected to strong vibra- tion. It is then advisable to inspect the line of sight, particularly if more than one target distance is being used. 1. In flat terrain, set up two staffs not more than 30 metres apart. 2. Set up the instrument so that it is equidistant from the two staffs (it is enough to pace out the distance) 3. Read off from both staffs and calculate the height difference (illustration above). Staff reading A = 1.549 Staff reading B = 1.404 ∆H = A – B = 0.145 4. Set up the instrument about one metre in front of staff A and take the staff reading (illustration below). Staff reading A = 1.496 5. Calculate the required reading B: Staff reading A = 1.496 - ∆H = 0.145 Required reading B = 1.351 6. Take the staff reading B. If it differs from the required reading by more than 3mm, adjust the line of sight (refer to instruction manual).

staking out point heights

1. Set up the level so that the sighting distances to A and B are about the same. 2. Set up the staff at A and read off the backsight R = 1.305. 3. Set up the staff at B and read off the foresight V = 2.520. The difference h from the required height at B is calculated as: h = V – R - ∆H = 2.520 – 1.305 – 1.00 = +0.215m 4. Drive in a post at B and mark the required height (0.215m above ground level). In another frequently-used method, the required staff reading is calculated in advance: V= R - ∆H = 1.305 - (-1.000) = 2.305 The levelling staff is then moved upwards or down- wards until the required value can be read off with the level.

polar method surveying

To create e.g. a location plan, the position and height of a point on the object are determined by measuring angles and distances. To do this, the instrument is set up on any prominent point in a local coordinate system. A second prominent point is selected for the purposes of orientation; after this has been targeted the horizontal circle is set to zero (refer to the user manual). If a coordinate system already exists, set up the instrument on a known point within it and line up the horizontal circle with a second known point (refer to the user manual).

plumbing down from a height point

Plumbing down from a height point, plumbing up from a ground point, and inspecting a vertical line on a structure, can be carried out exactly in just one tele- scope face, but only if the telescope describes a pre- cisely-vertical plane when it is tilted. To ascertain that this is so, proceed as follows: 1. Target a high point A, then tilt the telescope downwards and mark the ground point B. 2. Transit the telescope, and repeat the procedure in the second face. Mark the point C. The mid-point between the points B and C is the exact plumbing point. The reason why these two points do not coincide can be a tilting-axis error and/or an inclined vertical axis. For work of this type, make sure that the total station has been levelled up pre- cisely, so that the influence of vertical-axis tilt on steep sights is minimized.

Land Surveying Basics and Tutorlals