ian influence had taken control of Egypt and the power of the eastern nation didn't escape his notice.
In order to finance his coming expeditions, Alexander crossed first to Egypt crushing what little Persian resistance there was. Taking control with relative ease, and being welcomed for his deliverance from Persian rule, Alexander abruptly altered Egyptian culture that would last for the next 900 years.
He first founded the city of Alexandria to act as a Greek style seat of government for the Nile nation. Many Macedonian and Hellenistic supporters were appointed to various positions of power and a unique social structure of ethnicities began to develop. Greeks and Macedonians occupied the elite status, of which native Egyptians had little to no ability or interest to joing, while they occupied the common classes. Occupying the lower tiers were other outside cultures such as Jews, Nubians and other neighbors.
After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, his conquests began to crumble into factional kingdoms. In Egypt, the Macedonian general Ptolemy I Soter (Saviour) eventually took the throne. He established a dynasty that would last 300 years, until Cleopatra and the age of Caesar. In this time, a successive line of Ptolemic Kings, of Macedonian descent ruled Egypt with varying degrees of success.
The early Ptolemies exanded Egyptian and Macedonian influence in the region through various conquests of neighboring territories. Immense wealth was accumulated in the process and Egypt was slowly becoming the power it once was. The Ptolemies also wisely adopted many Egyptian customs while encouraging Greek Hellenism to prosper. By the end of the Ptolemy dyansty, the rulers of Egypt were as much Egyptian in culture as they were Macedonian in ethnicity.
Roman contact with the Egyptian state began most likely in the 3rd century BC. Because of Egypts Macedonian ties, there was certainly some diplomacy between the two during the Macedonian Wars against Philip V and his heir Perseus. During the related Syrian War, Philip and the Seleucid King Antiochus III formed an alliance to wrestle away Egyptian concerns in the region. Pressed by this a
it is applicable to all of the human race, and the surveying profession is certainly not exempt. It is in this spirit that I would like to start a discussion that relates to the history of surveying and surveying instrumentation.It is difficult to know where to start or where it will lead, but I will start with the story of the Egyptians and their surveying of land boundaries along the Nile River. Along the Nile was some of the most fertile and valuable land in all of Egypt, and as a result the owners of it did not to give up "even one inch" of it to their neighbors. They were smart enough to mark their boundaries with monuments, but when the Nile flooded many of these monuments would be washed away, thus creating serious boundary line problems. However, they came up with a very simple solution. They put monuments on the uplands on every property line, which provided them with the ability to measure from the monuments and extend the property lines back to the River. Thus monumentation became one of the most important aspects of surveying property lines.However, another very important dilemma had to be solved...the changes of the boundaries of the Nile River, or what we now call Riparian Rights.I hope this will be the beginning of a vigorous discussion of surveying history.David C. Garcelon…