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Land Surveying Markers & Monumentation

Land Survey Markers

A Primer for New Surveyors from Land Surveyors United

Land survey markers or land survey monuments are objects that are placed in marking major survey points on the earth’s surface. They are placed for use during surveys and for possible following surveys to come. Markers are typically durable and are often intended to be permanent. They can be as straightforward as a chisel mark or nail to as complex as stamped metal disks that are set into concrete or rock pillars.

Types of Land Surveying Markers and Monuments

The two most common types of survey markers used in land surveying include vertical elevation markers and horizontal position markers.


Types of Survey Markers

Vertical elevation markers also known as benchmarks originate from chiseled horizontal markings made by surveyors. These horizontal marks allow for an angle-iron to be placed forming a “bench”. This bench that is formed allows for leveling rods to be placed and repositioned if necessary in the same place in the future. This marking is usually indicated by a chiseled arrow below the horizontal line.

Example of Vertical Elevation Marker

Horizontal position markers are used for triangulation are also known as trig points. These points act as fixed stations for surveying projects. Trig points are usually set up by a government with recognized coordinate and elevations published. Fixed stations are often found on peaks of hills which allow the ability to spot them from many directions. Though these stations are no longer in use for surveying purposes they remain useful for navigational purposes.

 Example of horizontal position marker in land surveying

Legalities with Survey Markers

In the United States and many other countries it is a misdemeanor to intentionally remove or destroy permanent survey markers. Removal or destruction of survey markers should be reported to your local County Sheriff’s office or appropriate Police Department. Survey markers can occasionally be destroyed during major construction sites and are sometimes impossible to protect due to the nature of work performed at these construction sites. If this takes place, markers should be replaced or memorialized to maintain permanence of the historical record.


Surveying Markers and Benchmarks Photos

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