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Land Surveying Markers & Monumentation

Land Survey Markers

A Primer for New Surveyors from Land Surveyors United

Land survey markers or land survey monuments are objects that are placed in marking major survey points on the earth’s surface. They are placed for use during surveys and for possible following surveys to come. Markers are typically durable and are often intended to be permanent. They can be as straightforward as a chisel mark or nail to as complex as stamped metal disks that are set into concrete or rock pillars.

Types of Land Surveying Markers and Monuments

The two most common types of survey markers used in land surveying include vertical elevation markers and horizontal position markers.


Types of Survey Markers

Vertical elevation markers also known as benchmarks originate from chiseled horizontal markings made by surveyors. These horizontal marks allow for an angle-iron to be placed forming a “bench”. This bench that is formed allows for leveling rods to be placed and repositioned if necessary in the same place in the future. This marking is usually indicated by a chiseled arrow below the horizontal line.

Example of Vertical Elevation Marker

Horizontal position markers are used for triangulation are also known as trig points. These points act as fixed stations for surveying projects. Trig points are usually set up by a government with recognized coordinate and elevations published. Fixed stations are often found on peaks of hills which allow the ability to spot them from many directions. Though these stations are no longer in use for surveying purposes they remain useful for navigational purposes.

 Example of horizontal position marker in land surveying

Legalities with Survey Markers

In the United States and many other countries it is a misdemeanor to intentionally remove or destroy permanent survey markers. Removal or destruction of survey markers should be reported to your local County Sheriff’s office or appropriate Police Department. Survey markers can occasionally be destroyed during major construction sites and are sometimes impossible to protect due to the nature of work performed at these construction sites. If this takes place, markers should be replaced or memorialized to maintain permanence of the historical record.


Surveying Markers and Benchmarks Photos

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Surveying Articles is a place for members to Share Land Surveying related articles, presentations and knowledge with the Land Surveyors United Community. Post or embed articles for future generations of land surveyors.

Surveying Articles and Presentations

Do you have an article about Land Surveying that you would like to share?

Land Surveying is a timeless art and science and it is therefore, evergreen! You may also know that a lot of older publications have gone away, unfortunately.   If you have written or published land surveying articles in the past, we would be honored for you to share them here with us.  If it is an older article, you can even republish it here with updates and reflections.  

class="block"Tip:   If you published an article in the past on one of the older sites which no longer exist, you can use the Wayback Machine to find it.  Then just copy/paste the old article inside a new post here.  Just be sure to tell us where it was previously posted.

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 If you have a PDF document or article related to land surveying that you would like to embed inside an article post, simply copy/paste the following code block into the HTML view of the post editor and replace the BOLD part of the code with the URL of the PDF you'd like to embed.   

Code to use:

<iframe src="" frameborder="0" height="500px" width="100%"></iframe>

TIP:  You can also upload your PDF using the file upload button and then copy/paste the URL of the document you uploaded with the BOLD part of the code above to get a flippable PDF like so:

Uploading PDF land surveying documents to Surveying Articles

Differences between Forums, Blogs and Article posts

Forum Posts are great for asking questions which have a definate answer.  Forum posts are best for a quick exchange of information between Land Surveyors United members.   Please note that All Community Hubs have their own dedicated Forums so if your post is related to a specific hub, it is best to ask your question or share your tip inside the hub in which it belongs for targeted answers.  For example, if your question relates to Leica equipment, ask your question inside the Leica Hub forum for best results as all members inside that hub uses the equipment in question.  Likewise if your question pertains to a Location, you should consider making your post inside the appropriate hub.

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Blog Postsdiffer from Forum posts because you can embed and upload different kinds of information.  Blog posts are best for presenting information and updates for feedback and sharing.  When posting a Blog Post, you can also publish a short excerpt at the bottom which is what most members will see before reading the blog post.  Blog posts are also great for posting new surveying projects and digests of links to multiple surveying topics or your own website.   Things that can be embedded into Blog Posts are videos, images, slideshows, powerpoints, spreadsheets, PDFs, documents and more.

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Articles are similar to Blog Posts in all ways except one.  Articles allow for you to post an Author Block at the bottom with links to your contact info, website information, credentials, etc. Similar to Blog Posts, things that can be embedded into Blog Posts are videos, images, slideshows, powerpoints, spreadsheets, PDFs, documents and more.  Similar to both types above, Hub Owners can add article sections and features to any hub they control on the community.

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