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Monumentation in Surveying (12)

The articles within are geared to help new surveyors get a better understanding of what is expected of them and as such, will not be totally applicable to all areas of the world. We need to know if what is presented applies in your location. If not, please tell us the differences. Each of these articles were written from the point of view of Land Surveyors primarily in the United States. With that said, there will certainly be differences and other variables with the information in different areas of the world. We invite you to comment on any of the articles and encourage adding your suggestions for how the content relates to your local surveying environment.
Effective February 23, 2021, the 2016 Minimum Standard Detail Requirements for ALTA/NSPS Land Title Surveys are being replaced with the new 2021 Minimum Standard Detail Requirements for ALTA/NSPS Land Title Surveys (“2021 Standards”). The 2021 Standards include a variety of changes which seek to further limit surveyor’s liability and provide better clarity. Some of the more notable changes are as follows:
The subject area of land surveying is very interesting and to become a licensed land surveyor you need to understand and be able to put into practice a wide range of land survey formulas as the majority of land surveying is based around mathematics and physics. In today's guide we shall look at land survey formulas in more detail.  And if you are a Land Surveyor, here is an entire forum and hub for sharing surveying formulas.
Receiving an estimate of costs for a survey from a Registered/Professional Land Surveyor takes very little effort and is easier than you may think.  A surveyor first needs a copy of your Warranty Deed in which a description of your land helps determine an accurate estimate.  The cost of a Land Survey is directly related to the total time and effort involved for the survey.  When receiving an estimate for a survey keep in mind that all Land Surveyors assume the worst possible scenario in calculating an estimate for you.  Competitive rates for the majority of Land Surveyors in your area should also be expected. 
For modern day Land Surveyors, this is nothing new.   Surveying has been around for a very long time. It is known as the second oldest profession and men have been practicing it since early 3000 BC. It was used in ancient Egypt when they built the pyramids, and was used by the Roman Empire to establish tax registers of conquered lands. Surveying requires a skill in mathematics and was one of the first professions to be licensed.
The most satisfactory method in surveying small areas is the relative positioning of the control points that are calculated in a co-ordinate system rather than directly plotted by scale and protractor. This method allows all errors to be adjusted and it doesn't depend on any angle-measuring device. Using this survey research method plotted stations are independent and are plotted from precise calculations.
The ability to read and use a variety of maps is crucial in land surveying.  Land surveyors begin with a large-scale map in order to make a landscape-level plan.  After the land surveyor determines the need for specific projects a stand-level map will be required.  Two kinds of stand-level maps include: Transportation maps and Topographic maps.
All about the types of Land Surveying Markers & Monumentations. Land survey markers or land survey monuments are objects that are placed in marking major survey points on the earth’s surface. They are placed for use during surveys and for possible following surveys to come. Markers are typically durable and are often intended to be permanent. They can be as straightforward as a chisel mark or nail to as complex as stamped metal disks that are set into concrete or rock pillars.
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