### Measurements in Land Surveying

In Surveying Business, Land Surveying Markers, and Monumentation in Surveying

When reading legal land survey descriptions there are several things a land surveyor must keep in mind to conduct a proper survey. For example, the following legal description is for a 42- acre parcel – T39N, R23W, Sec. 4, NW1/4 SE1/4.

First, one must understand that punctuation is crucial in reading legal land surveys.  If a comma were included in between the “NW1/4” and “SE1/4” of this legal measurement/description then it would alter the reading to be for a 320 acre parcel.  Second, all legal descriptions are read backwards.  The legal land survey description is read from right to left, going from the smallest unit of measurement to the largest unit of measurement.  Understanding these key points will enable you to conduct a more precise and accurate survey.

The Rectangular Survey System

Land surveying consists largely of determining the measurements of parcels of land.  The Rectangular Survey System or the Public Land Survey System (PLSS) is the primary type of land survey measurement system that the majority of the United States has been surveyed by.  It is a system that is setup on a grid in which the primary objective is to determine approximate values of square sections measuring 1 square mile each (1 square mile = 5,280 feet).  The rectangular survey system is the most common system land surveyors use throughout their career to define accurate and precise measurements.

In order to apply the rectangular survey system you must first understand a couple terms.  These include prime meridiansbaselines, and principal meridians.  Prime Meridians are north-south lines (lines of longitude), at which longitude is defined to be 0°.  The Prime Meridian starts at the North Pole and extends south to the South Pole.  Baselines are lines that extend east-west.  Principal meridians are the true north-south lines that run through the initial point of the area that is being covered.

All measurement starts at an initial point.  Initial points in land surveying are usually set by astronomical observation.  Across the United States there are 37 points where a principal meridian and baseline intersect.  From each of these initial points, a prime meridian extends north-south, and a baseline extends east-west.  Along the north-south prime meridian, initial points are marked at 24 mile intervals.  Baselines extend from east to west from these points as well.  Along the east-west baselines, points are marked at 24 mile intervals as beginning from the north-south prime meridian.  The parallel points created from these points are called standard corners.

For each standard corner a line runs true north.  These lines are called guide meridians.  Due to the Earth’s curvature, guide meridians do not intersect through standard corners along the next standard parallel, 24 miles to the north.  The intersections they cross are called closing corners.  Each standard now contains a set of both standard and closing corners.

Each 24-mile tract is divided up into 16 townships. Townships are roughly 6 miles x 6 miles.  Starting at the southeast corner of the 24-mile tract, corners are established six miles apart along the east-west parallel and the north-south meridians. From these corners, range lines run true north to the next parallel, and township lines run west to the next prime meridian.  With that said, each township is now divided into 36 sections, a piece of land roughly 1 square mile x 1 square mile, or approximately 640 acres.  This process is also used in defining corners and running lines from the southeast corner of the township.  Each of the 36 sections is then divided into 16 forties.  These forties are further subdivided, and subdivided, and subdivided.

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If I purchase a Futurist Membership or higher, do I have to give my extra raffle tickets to those I sponsor?

By sponsoring another surveyor who cannot afford membership, you have the choice of either giving your sponsored member the raffle ticket or keep it for yourself.  By sponsoring another member you double  or triple increase your chances of winning but it is up to you as to whether or not to keep the extra raffle ticket or give it to them.   Once you are matched with a member to sponsor you will be given a short bio about who you sponsored with information such as how long they have been surveying, where they are located and most importantly, their Member Number, which you will essentially become owner for purposes of the raffle.

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Absolutely! Helping a fellowSurveyor who cannot afford membership pushes everyone forward. Reward yourself for your gesture, if you like. For example,You'll get 2 raffle tickets per month as a Futurist or higher and it is your choice to either keep their raffle ticket or give it to the member you sponsor. As a Futurist, you essentially become the owner/steward of the Member/Raffle number associated with the member you sponsor. You will also be given a choice between 3 members to sponsor based on their relationship and experience in land surveying. As a sponsor you will be providing access to all of the educational tools, resources and knowledgebase for a member who otherwise would only have restricted access.

If I purchase a Futurist Membership or higher, do I have to give my extra raffle tickets to those I sponsor?

By sponsoring another surveyor who cannot afford membership, you have the choice of either giving your sponsored member the raffle ticket or keep it for yourself.  By sponsoring another member you double  or triple increase your chances of winning but it is up to you as to whether or not to keep the extra raffle ticket or give it to them.   Once you are matched with a member to sponsor you will be given a short bio about who you sponsored with information such as how long they have been surveying, where they are located and most importantly, their Member Number, which you will essentially become owner for purposes of the raffle.

Paypal Does not work as a Payment Method in my Location

Thank you for this feedback.  Today I have added the ability to purchase your raffle tickets using Cash App and I am working on Stripe and other integrations.   If you have a preferred payment method that you would like for me to try adding, please tell us here.

Paypal Does not work as a Payment Method in my Location

Thank you for this feedback.  Today I have added the ability to purchase your raffle tickets using Cash App and I am working on Stripe and other integrations.   If you have a preferred payment method that you would like for me to try adding, please tell us here.

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IMPORTANT:  If you are not making money as a land surveyor, we have you covered, but you need to let us know.   If you do not let us know, we will not be able to remove the restricted access from your account and therefore you will only be seeing 20% of what Land Surveyors United Community has to offer you.  There is a place inside the memberships page for you to explicitly tell us that you are not currently able to afford membership.   By filling out this form, we will be able to match you with an available sponsor.   Once the parties are in communication, it is between you to decide how raffle tickets will be distributed. In other words, your sponsor may choose to keep your raffle number which means they essentially own your Member Number for the year and will have 12 chances to win with your number.  Nevertheless, you will be afforded all of the access and permissions to access restricted areas and resources that a Basic Member will have across the community and all member apps.

Where do the Raffle Prizes come from?

Every month of 2021 and beyond, our community is sponsored by a different Marketplace Vendor who we believe you should reach out to and get to know.  The raffle prizes will all be a showcase of the best of the best offered by these vendors, who have all been hand chosen based on customer service quality, willingness to support what they sell and overall feedback across the community.   Those vendors recieve an entire month of our community support and love in exchange for their sponsorship of our unity for the month.  For example, Safety Apparel is the sponsor of January as it is Safety Month and the high quality safety gear they provide our members saves lives every single day.   We celebrate them. We follow them.  We share what they are doing in the world to make land surveying better and so should you.  At the end of the month, a Major Mega Survey Party Pack of vests, gloves and accessories will be awarded to the winning Raffle Member Number.   It is true that we shall celebrate Safety Apparel every month of the year, but their month to shine in the community is the entire month of January.  In February, Survipod becomes our Sponsor of the month and we will showcase their innovations and will raffle a prize at the end of the month.

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You do not need to win the raffle for the month to own the products provided by our sponsors.  In fact, if you contact the sponsor and let them know that you are a Land Surveyors United member, they have all agreed to provide a special member discount for you when purchasing the products they offer.

What if I am not a land surveyor but I have a profile on Land Surveyors United?

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Articles are similar to Blog Posts in all ways except one.  Articles allow for you to post an Author Block at the bottom with links to your contact info, website information, credentials, etc. Similar to Blog Posts, things that can be embedded into Blog Posts are videos, images, slideshows, powerpoints, spreadsheets, PDFs, documents and more.  Similar to both types above, Hub Owners can add article sections and features to any hub they control on the community.

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