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possible instrument errors

Ideally, the total station should meet the following requirements: a) Line of sight ZZ perpen- dicular to tilting axis KK b) Tilting axis KK perpen- dicular to vertical axis VV c) Vertical axis VV strictly vertical d) Vertical-circle reading precisely zero at the zenith If these conditions are not met, the following terms are used to describe the particular errors: a) Line-of-sight error, or colli- mation error c (deviation from the right angle bet- ween the line of sight and the tilting axis) b) Tilting-axis error a (devia- tion from the right angle between the tilting axis and the vertical axis) c) Vertical-axis tilt (angle between plumb line and vertical axis.
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Since 2007, Land Surveyors around the world have shared their best Surveying Photos from the field. Inside this collection you can transport yourself to virtually any location on Earth and see how Land Surveyors work, types of equipment being used and environmental challenges associates with being a land surveyor in that location.

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