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possible instrument errors

Ideally, the total station should meet the following requirements: a) Line of sight ZZ perpen- dicular to tilting axis KK b) Tilting axis KK perpen- dicular to vertical axis VV c) Vertical axis VV strictly vertical d) Vertical-circle reading precisely zero at the zenith If these conditions are not met, the following terms are used to describe the particular errors: a) Line-of-sight error, or colli- mation error c (deviation from the right angle bet- ween the line of sight and the tilting axis) b) Tilting-axis error a (devia- tion from the right angle between the tilting axis and the vertical axis) c) Vertical-axis tilt (angle between plumb line and vertical axis.
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