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Lost and Obliterated Corners

RESTORATION OF LOST OR OBLITERATED CORNERS The restoration of lost corners should not be undertaken until after all control has been developed; such control includes both original and acceptable collateral evidence. However, the methods of proportionate measurement will be of material aid in the recovery of evidence. 1. An existent corner is one whose position can be identified by verifying the evidence of the monument, or its accessories, by reference to the description that is contained in the field notes, or where the point can be located by an acceptable supplemental survey record, some physical evidence, or testimony. Even though its physical evidence may have entirely disappeared, a corner will not be regarded as lost if its position can be recovered through the testimony of one or more witnesses who have a dependable knowledge of the original location. Marks on old stone section corners, The notches or grooves indicate the number of miles from the south and east boundaries of the township, respectively. 2. An obliterated corner is one at whose point there are no remaining traces of the monument, or its accessories, but whose location has been perpetuated, or the point for which may be recovered beyond reasonable doubt, by the acts and testimony of the interested landowners, competent surveyors, or other qualified local authorities, or witnesses, or by some acceptable record evidence. A position based upon collateral evidence should be duly supported, generally through proper relation to known corners, and agreement with the field notes regarding distances to natural objects, stream crossings, line trees, and off-line tree blazes, etc-, or unquestionable testimony. 3. A lost corner IS a point of a survey whose position cannot be determined, beyond reasonable doubt either from traces of the original marks or from acceptable evidence or testimony that bears upon the original position, and whose location can be restored only by reference to one or more interdependent corners. If there is some acceptable evidence of the original location of the corner, that position will be employed. Decision that a corner is lost should not be made until every means has been exercised that might aid in identifying its true original position. The retracements, which are usually begun at known corners, and run according to the record of the original survey, will indicate the probable position for the corner, and show what discrepancies may be expected. Any supplemental survey record or testimony should then be considered in the light of the facts thus developed. A line will not be regarded as doubtful if the retracement affords recovery of acceptable evidence. In cases where the probable position for a corner cannot be made to harmonize with some of the calls of the field notes, due to errors in description or to discrepancies in measurement developed in the retracement, it must be ascertained which of the calls for distances along the line are entitled to the greater weight. Aside from the technique of recovering traces of the original marks, the main problem is one that treats with the discrepancies in alinement and measurement. (See p.33.) 4. Existing original corners cannot be disturbed; consequently, discrepancies between the new and the record measurements will not in any manner affect the measurements beyond the identified corners, but the differences will be distributed proportionately within the several intervals along the line between the corners.
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