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Land Surveyor
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA .J& .W -f srii o* iad8 .93t/ -:ot vl^a>; aoiiO bnjs J8KI 3h ESTABLISHED 1845 W. & L. E. GURLEY, TROY, N. Y. MANUFACTURERS OF Civil Engineers' and Surveyors' Instruments All Instruments Sent to the Purchaser Adjusted and Ready for Use. Send for Full Illus- trated Price List and Circular. A MANUAL LAND SURVEYING COMPRISING AN ELEMENTARY COURSE OF PRACTICE WITH INSTRUMENTS AND A TREATISE UPON THE Survey of Public and Private Lands, PREPARED For use of Schools and Surveyors. BY F. HODGMAN, M. S., C. E., Practical Surveyor and Engineer. 'Let things that have to be done be learned by doing them." THE F. HODGMAN CO., CLIMAX, MICHIGAN. 1907. TA55/ Engineering Library Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1903. BY F. HODGMAN, In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington PREFACE. This addition to the already numerous treatises on land surveymg was caused by the demand of the surveyors of Michigan for a treatise which would deal with the prac- tical questions which meet the surveyor in his every day work in the field. Several admirable treatises were already in existence which dealt amply with the mathe- matical and instrumental part of surveymg. But the perplexing questions which meet the surveyor are not questions of mathematical calculation or of the use of instruments. On the contrary they are, for the most part, questions of how to apply the principles of common law and statutory enactment to the location of boundary lines. These are the controlling considerations in all re- surveys; a class which comprises probably nine-tenths of all the land surveys which are made. Scarcely an allusion to these principles was to be found in any of the works on surveying extant. In 1880 the Michigan Association of Surveyors and Civil Engineers appointed a committee on manual, to prepare a work which would give authori- tative answers to the many questions of practice which came up before them. The committee spent their spare time for five years in an exhaustive research of the laws and the decisions of the highest courts in the land. The chairman attended the meetings of various surveyors' associations and collected their reports. From the great mass of material thus collected, the leading points in the laws of the United States and the decisions of the courts of last resort were selected, covering, as nearly as possible, all the points relative to surveys and boundary lines which arise in the land surveyor's practice The legal decisions quoted are a part of the Common iav? ol the whole country and apply wherever the Common law prevails, whetf-d England, or the United IV PREFACE. States. It should be remembered, however, that differ- ent courts do not always expound the law alike, and sometimes a court reverses its own decisions. When- ever there appears to be a conflict of authorities, the Surveyor should follow the latest decisions in his own State if there be any. It seemed to the committee to be important that the student in land surveying should be taught these things ; that they were as necessary for the beginner to know as for the older practitioner, and hence might properly be incorporated in the text book. Having this in view, it was decided to extend the scope of the manual by including such mathe- matical work as would make it equally adapted to the use of the student as a text book and the practical sur- veyor as a book of reference. In preparing this portion of the work, the leading idea has been that, so far as possible, the student should be taught by actual practice in the field, as well as in the class room; that he should learn to survey by surveying. The solution of a problem in surveying in actual practice is always worked out upon the ground, hence suggestions are made to the student how problems may be solved, instead of giving any formal solution. It is pre-supposed that every successful teacher will have methods of his own for conveying instruction, and will use these suggestions or make different ones as may seem best to him. Doubtless things have been omitted which some would regard as important to have introduced. Such omissions will be supplied by teachers at their pleasure and convenience. We acknowledge our indebtedness to the authors of many treatises which have been consulted in the prepara- tion of this volume, especially to the works of Davies, Oillespie, Hawes and Dunn, also to Messrs. W. & L. E. Gurley for many favors received, and to the officers and members of the Surveyors' Associations of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri for many valuable suggestions, sympathy and assistance. F. HODGMAN. Climax, Mich., TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. DEFINITIONS. PAGE. .INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING DISTANCES. The Chain 2 The Steel Tape 3 Marking Pins 4 Measuring 4 MEASURES OF LENGTH AND AREA, English 9 Old Spanish 11 Old French 13 Standard Measures 14 THE PICKET, To Run Line with 16 To Pass Obstacles- 18 CHAPTER II. INSTRUMENTS. THE SURVEYOR'S COMPASS, Description of 19 Adjustments of 22 Electricity 24 To Run Lines with 24 To Pass Obstacles 25 THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE, Changes in direction of 26 Local Attraction 27 Difference in Instruments 27 Things to be Observed ___ 27 Marking Lines 28 How to find a True Meridian 28 THE TRANSIT, Description and Adjustments 52 How to use - -- 59 Assistants and their Duties 60 The Color Pole 61 Projecting the Line 62 [v] VI TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAPTER III. INSTRUMENTS, CONTINUED. THE SOLAR COMPASS, Description and Adjustments 65 How to use - 73 SOLAR ATTACHMENT TO TRANSIT. Description and Adjustments 80 How to use 86 CHAPTER IV. MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES. TO MEASURE ANGLES, With Tape and Tins 88 With the Compass 91 With the Transit 100 Verniers 102 TO CORRECT RANDOM LINES, Of one course 93 Of several courses 96 CHAPTER V. PASSING OBSTACLES AND MEASURING INACCESSIBLE DISTANCES. PASSING OBSTACLES, By Parallel Lines 107 By 60 Angles 107 TO MEASURE INACCESSIBLE DISTANCES, By triangles.- 10S Stadia Measures 110 The Gradienter 115 CHAPTER VI. PLATTING AND COMPUTING AREAS. PLATTING, Instruments used 119 COMPUTING AREAS, Triangles 122 Quadrangles : Rectangles, Trapezoids and Trapeziums 124 Irregular Polygons 125 Offsets 120 Rectangular Coordinates 128 Application to Area 129 The Traverse Table 134 Meridian Distances 136 Supplying Omissions 143 Reducing Irregular Polygons 148 Division and Partition of Land ^- 153 Method by Approximations 163 Field Notes 164 Abridging Field Notes 168 TABLE OF CONTENTS. TIT CHAPTER VII. CURYELINEAR SURVEYING. Preliminary Propositions 170 To run Curves with Picket and Tape 171 Field Notes of Transit Lanes 173 To run a Curve with the Transit, Different Methods 171 To locate a Curve from its Middle Point 178 To locate a Curve from some Intermediate Point 179 To locate a Curve from Point of Intersection jgO Passing Obstructions in Line of Curve 181 Compound Curves 1&J Useful Formula 184 CHAPTER VIII. ORIGINAL SURVEYS. Surveys, Classified 186 Original Surveys, Government and Private 186 PUBLIC DOMAIN, How and when Acquired 1S8 Amount of - - 189 Origin of Systems of Surveys of 189 Laws relating to Survey of, where found 193 U. S. LAWS RELATING TO SURVEYS OF PUBLIC LANDS. Appointment of Surveyor General 193 Qualifications of 1H3 Term of Office 194 When Records and Field Notes to be turned over to the State 194 Discontinuance of Office 194 When Authority to vest in Com. of Gen. Land Office 193 Free Access to Field Notes and Records If5 Surveyor General to Employ Deputies 183 To cause Survey of Base and Meridian Lines 196 To cause Survey of Private Land Claims . 177-195 To inspect Surveys in Person or by Agent 197 Pay of Agent 197 Deputy Surveyor to Give Bond 197 Deputy Surveyor to make Oath to Field Notes 198 Penalty for Fraudulent Survey 198 PUBLIC LANDS, How Divided into Townships 198 Township Lines, how marked 199 Townships, how subdivided into Sections 199 Sections, how numbered 171-199 Section Corners, how marked 199 Excess or Deficiency over six miles 199 Lines, how marked and measured 200 VII! TABLE OF CONTENTS. what Surveyors to note in Field Books 300 Disposition of Field Books and making of Plats, ... 200 SECTIONS AND SUBDIVISIONS OF SECTIONS, How Boundaries and Contents are found , 200 U. 8, Survey Corners the true ones '. , , , 201 Corners of X and ^ Sections not set by Government Survey. . 201 Boundary Linee of U. 8. Survey the true ones. .... 201 Those not run, how found 201 True Contents of Sections returned 201 True Contents of % and ^ Sections which are not Returned * , 201 Fractional Sections, how divided 202 When ordinary Course may be departed from. ..... 202 Surveys in Nevada, Oregon, and California 203 When Rectangular System may be departed from . . 203 Instructions, a part of Contract 20i Survey of Mining Claims and Rights of Owners. ... 201 Appointment of Mineral Surveyors 206 Plats and Field Notes of Mining Surveys . , 207 Contracts to be approved by Com. Gen. Land Office 207 Commissioner to fix Prices for Surveys, etc 207 Extra Price in Oregon, Washington, and California 208 Penalty for Interference with Surveys 209 Surveyors appointed to select Timber Lands 210 Duty of Director of Geological Survey 210 FIELD WORK AND CHANGES THAT HAVE BEEN MADE. Two Mile Blocks, Act of 1796 211 Subdivisions into half Sections, Act of 1800 211 Changes in manner of Subdividing, Double Corners, etc , . 211 How Area of Fractions is Calculated 213 INSTRUCTIONS OF 1902. System of rectangular Surveying 218 Establishment of Meridians, Base Lines, and Parallels 219 Division into Townships and Sections. 220 Excess or deficiency in measurement 220 How Townships and Sections are numbered , . . 220 Instruments to be used 221 Tests and Adjustments of , . , . . 221 Chains and Tally pins . 222 Process of chaining 223 Leveling chain and Plumbing phio 223 Marking lines 224 Marking random lines 225 Insuperable objects in line 226 Witness Points where made. 226 Establishing Corners ' 26 Marking Tools 227 Surveying Monuments 227 Descriptions of Corners 227 TABLE OF CONTENTS. IX Abbreviations 228 Standard Township Corners, how marked 230 Witness Corners, how marked 233 Witness Corners in Roads 233 Witness points, how marked 234 Corners on rock 234 Location of Mounds 234 Mounds of Stone '234 Bearing Trees 235 Stones for Corners 237 When Lines to be discontinued at Corners 237 Marks to be Cut 237 Orientation of Corners 237 Size of Posts, Mounds, etc Corner Materials 237 Initial Points ., 238 Base Line 238 Principal Meridians 240 Standard Parallels 040 Guide Meridians 241 Township Exteriors 241 Township exteriors where impassable objects occur. o 4 o Method of Subdividing 243 Method of Subdividing, Exceptions 247 Meandering Streams 249 Meandering Lakes 251 Objects to be noted 253 Prescribed Limits for Closings and Lengths of Lines 255 Field Notes Blank Books furnished 256 What Original Field Notea are 256 SURVEYING BASE LINES AND STANDARD PAR ALLELS BY OFFSETS FROM STRAIGHT LINES. Secant Method and Tables 257 Tangent Method and Tables 264 - CHAPTER IX. SUBDIVISION OF SECTIONS. SUBDIVISION OF SECTIONS 267 Four Different Cases 269 Quarter Sections 270 Half-Quarter Sections 270 Fractional Sections 270 .... X TABLE OF CONTENTS. Section Six 271 Sections made Fractional by Waters 272 Irregular Subdivision of Sections made Fractional by Waters 273 Exceptional Cases 274 Sample Resurvey and Subdivision of a Section 274 Private Surveys 283 Higbway Surveys 284 Surveys for Town Plats 284 What Plats in Michigan must contain 285 What Record of Plats in Michigan must contain 285 Monuments ... 287 CHAPTER X. RESURVEYS. RESUEVEYS. Authority of Surveyor 2^'J What the Surveyor is called on to do 289. DECISIONS OF SUPREME COURTS, Giving Rules for construing Descriptions of Land 289 Adverse Possession 305 Rules of Construction when Land borders on Waters 303 How to Locate Corners and Boundary Lines 317 General Rules 317 Alluvium ., 337 Rules Applicable to U. S. Survey. 339 Mineral Surveys 350 How to Write Descriptions for Deeds 351 CHAPTER XI. RE-LOCATING LOST CORNERS. General Rule 358 Lost Corners of U. S. Survey in Base Lines, etc 357 Lost Closing Section Corners 357 Lost Interior Section Corners 358 Lost Township Corners . 358 Lost Quarter-Section Corners 353 Lost Meander Corners. '. 353 Exceptional Methods 359 HOW TO FIND LOST CORNERS, Evidences of Original Posts 360 Bearing Trees .___ , 361 Fences _ 362 Distant Corners 363 Persons 364 TABLE OF CONTENTS. XI CHAPTER XII. MISCELLANEOUS. Miscellaneous Questions 365 RIGHTS, DUTIES, ETC., OF SURVEYORS 377 To fix Lines by Consent of Parties 377 Have no Authority of their own for that purpose 377 Or to determine where Corners and Lines are 377 Old Boundaries not to be disturbed 378 County Surveyor's Certificate not Admissible in evi- dence in Michigan 378 Surveyor Liable for Damages for Unskillful Work 378 Judicial Functions of Surveyors 379
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