Land Surveyors

Happy National Surveyors Week 2015 Everyone!

The purpose of Surveyors Week (NSPS) is to bring visibility to the profession. During Surveyors Week, land surveyors across the nation celebrate by educating the public on what they do & why it is important; encouraging students to consider surveying as a career choice; and participating in activities that promote and bring awareness to the surveying profession. All licensees, governmental agencies, technical professional organizations and citizens groups are encouraged to join the celebration.

Download NSPS Surveyors Week Volunteer Media Kit

**Due to such large participation in 2014, we are currently in stages of planning 2015 International Surveyors Week June 14th- 21st so stay tuned...Of course you also have Survey Earth in a Day 4D to look forward to..

Add SEIAD To Your Calendar:

Now onto the Importance of Surveyors

Like many of you, I am constantly asked what exactly do surveyors do?  And although this question is rarely asked on this network, if at all, i have noticed that there are many surveyors out there who may not be able to explain this themselves.  The truth is Surveyors are of enormous importance to the public and without surveyors, land ownership, land development and construction would be absolute chaos.  So, I am going to layout some useful information about what surveyors do and invite all of you to add to my notes in the comments below.  

I am learning, just like many of you, so the following notes are for teaching each other what we have learned along the way.  Please feel free to correct me if I am wrong and add your own notes to keep this discussion going.

Without Surveyors, Engineering would be Chaos

All engineering projects are a puzzle.  The planning and design of all Civil Engineering projects such as construction of highways, bridges, tunnels, dams etc are based upon surveying measurements. Without these professionally calculated measurements, we would not know how the puzzle looks when put together.

Moreover, during execution, project of any magnitude is constructed along the lines and points established by surveying.

Thus, surveying is a basic requirement for all Civil Engineering projects.

Other principal works in which surveying is primarily utilized are

•  to fix the national and state boundaries;

•  to chart coastlines, navigable streams and lakes;

•  to establish control points :Control points : Stations having known position.

•  to execute hydrographic and oceanographic charting and mapping; and

•  to prepare topographic map of land surface of the earth.

Objectives in Surveying

• To collect field data;

• To prepare plan or map of the area surveyed; 

Plan : Orthographic representation of features on or near the surface of the earth in Large Scale on a horizontal plane.

Map : Graphical representation of features on or near the surface of the earth in small scale on a horizontal plane and is constructed using a projection system other than orthographic.

• To analyse and to calculate the field parameters for setting out operation of actual engineering works

• To set out field parameters at the site for further engineering works.

Divisions of Surveying

The approximate shape of the earth can best be defined as an oblate tri-axial ovaloid.

Oblate (spheroid) : An oblate (spheroid) is a surface of revolution obtained by rotating an ellipse about its minor axis i.e., having equatorial radius greater than the polar radius.

Ovaloid : A pear shaped figure having dimension of one hemisphere larger than the other for earth, southern hemisphere is larger than the northern.

However, most of the civil engineering works are concerned only with a small portion of the earth which seems to be a plane surface. Thus, based upon the consideration of the shape of the earth, surveying is broadly divided into two types.

Geodetic Surveying

In this branch of surveying, the true shape of the earth is taken into consideration.

This type of surveying is being carried out for highly precise work and is adopted for surveying of a large area.

Plane Surveying

In this method of surveying, the mean surface of the earth is considered to be a plane surface. This type of survey is applicable for small area (less than 200 square kilometer). So, for most of the Civil Engineering projects, methods of plane surveying are valid.

Fundamental Assumptions in Plane Surveying

•  All distances and directions are horizontal;

•  The direction of the plumb line is same at all points within the limits of the survey;

      Plumb line : The direction of the lines of force of earth's gravity field. In field surveying, it is defined by the direction of a freely suspended plumb-bob.

•  All angles (both horizontal and vertical) are plane angles;

•  Elevations (The vertical distance of a point from a datum.) are with reference to a datum (A levelled surface taken as reference for the determination of elevations of points.)

Classifications of Surveying

Based on the purpose (for which surveying is being conducted), Surveying has been classified into:

•  Control surveying : To establish horizontal and vertical positions of control points.

•  Land surveying : To determine the boundaries and areas of parcels of land, also known as property survey, boundary survey or cadastral survey.

•  Topographic survey : To prepare a plan/ map of a region which includes natural as well as and man-made features including elevation.

•  Engineering survey : To collect requisite data for planning, design and execution of engineering projects. Three broad steps are

1)  Reconnaissance survey : To explore site conditions and availability of infrastructures.

2) Preliminary survey : To collect adequate data to prepare plan / map of area to be used for planning and design.

3)  Location survey : To set out work on the ground for actual construction / execution of the project.

  Route survey : To plan, design, and laying out of route such as highways, railways, canals, pipelines, and other linear projects.

•  Construction surveys : Surveys which are required for establishment of points, lines, grades, and for staking out engineering works (after the plans have been prepared and the structural design has been done).

  Astronomic surveys : To determine the latitude and longitude (of the observation station) and azimuth (of a line through observation station) from astronomical observation.

•  Mine surveys : To carry out surveying specific for opencast and underground mining purposes.

Principles of Surveying

The fundamental principles upon which the surveying is being carried out are

  • working from whole to part.
  • after deciding the position of any point, its reference must be kept from at least two permanent objects or stations whose position have already been well defined.

The purpose of working from whole to part is

  • to localise the errors
  • and to control the accumulation of errors.

This is being achieved by establishing a heirarchy of networks of control points. The less precise networks are established within the higher precise network and thus restrict the errors. To minimise the error limit, highest precise network (primary network) Figure 1.1 of control points are established using the most accurate / precise instruments for collection of data and rigorous methods of analysis are employed to find network parameters. This also involves most skilled manpower and costly resources which are rare and cost intensive.

The reference of any point, say X, has to kept with respect to, at least, two permanent objects or well defined points, say Y and Z. Generally, this has been achieved by taking measurement of two parameters.The location of a point, say X can be done as shown in the figures below.

(a) Distances YX and ZX (figure 1.2)

(b) Perpendicular distance OX and distance OY or OZ (figure 1.3)

(c) Distance YX or ZX and angle YZX or ZYX

(d) Angles YZX and ZYX.

The point of intersection of the two measured parameters defines the position of the point.

Stages of Operations in Surveying

Planning

To decide

• the methods to be adopted for surveying;

• the resources (instruments & personnel) to be used;

• the control points / stations to be used ( those already available and/ or to set up).

The planning operation needs a-priori field visit and this is known as reconnaissance.

Field Observation

It involves

• Collection of field data by making necessary measurements;

• Recording of observed data in a systematic manner. Before starting any field observation, the permanent adjustments of all the instruments need to be checked thoroughly by trained personnel and if required, it must be adjusted.

Office Works

It involves

• Processing, analysing and calculation of observed data;

• Preparation of necessary data (for making plan or map of the area);

• Making of a plan or map of the area;

• Computation of relevant field parameters as per design for setting out engineering works at site.

Setting Out Works

To locate and establish different parameters / dimensions at the site as per design for further engineering works.

I know that this is a lot to digest and the truth is it is only the tip of the iceberg.  You can learn a lot about surveying within the pages of this network and from your fellow professional surveyors.  Ask, learn, share your stories and improve through communication.  You have close to 8000 other experienced minds to consult right at your fingertips on Land Surveyors United. 

Did I miss anything?  Now over to you..

This Content Originally Published by a land surveyor to Land Surveyors United Network

Views: 3780

See Your Saved Posts Timeline

Communicate ⇣

Comments Welcome Surveyor!   Please Sign in or register to continue.

Follow Land Surveyors United

Reply by AxeMen Site Prep on April 1, 2015 at 7:51pm

So proud of LSU!

Reply by ePalmetto on March 19, 2015 at 10:23pm
"You hit the nail right on the head"...amazing presentation and representation to the Surveying professionals from a anthropologist prospective. Plus all the years of just hanging with me (Dad.Skip Farrow)through the years. Again what a great job, very proud of you.
Reply by Deward Karl Bowles on March 19, 2015 at 9:50pm
Wow that is quite a piece! Wonderful! Preach it brother!
Reply by Jaybird on March 18, 2015 at 10:20pm
Tip of the tip of the iceberg.

Where Thousands of Professional Land Surveyors, Students of Surveying and Educators are United through Collaborative Knowledge and Purpose.

Tools,Apps and Quick Guides

Dedicated to the Memory of Skip Farrow (1953-2015)

+ Surveyor Sharer

Drag Button to bookmark bar and view submitted links here.Will soon be moved to a directory

AFGHANISTAN SURVEYORS ALBANIA SURVEYORS ALGERIA SURVEYORS AMERICAN SAMOA SURVEYORS ANDORRA SURVEYORS
ANGOLA SURVEYORS ANGUILLA SURVEYORS ANTIGUA & BARBUDA SURVEYORS ARGENTINA SURVEYORS ARMENIA SURVEYORS
ARUBA SURVEYORS AUSTRALIA SURVEYORS AUSTRIA SURVEYORS AZERBAIJAN SURVEYORS BAHAMAS SURVEYORS
BAHRAIN SURVEYORS BANGLADESH SURVEYORS BARBADOS SURVEYORS BELARUS SURVEYORS BELGIUM SURVEYORS
BELIZE SURVEYORS BENIN SURVEYORS BERMUDA SURVEYORS BHUTAN SURVEYORS BOLIVIA SURVEYORS
BOSNIA & HERZEGOWINA SURVEYORS BOTSWANA SURVEYORS BRAZIL SURVEYORS BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY SURVEYORS
BRUNEI DARUSSALAM SURVEYORS BULGARIA SURVEYORS BURKINA FASO SURVEYORS BURUNDI SURVEYORS CAMBODIA SURVEYORS
CAMEROON SURVEYORS CANADA SURVEYORS CAPE VERDE SURVEYORS CAYMAN ISLANDS SURVEYORS CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC SURVEYORS
CHAD SURVEYORS CHILE SURVEYORS CHINA SURVEYORS COLOMBIA SURVEYORS COMOROS SURVEYORS
CONGO SURVEYORS DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO SURVEYORS COOK ISLANDS SURVEYORS COSTA RICA SURVEYORS COTE D'IVOIRE SURVEYORS
CROATIA SURVEYORS CUBA SURVEYORS CURACAO SURVEYORS CYPRUS SURVEYORS CZECH REPUBLIC SURVEYORS
DENMARK SURVEYORS DJIBOUTI SURVEYORS DOMINICA SURVEYORS DOMINICAN REPUBLIC SURVEYORS ECUADOR SURVEYORS
EGYPT SURVEYORS EL SALVADOR SURVEYORS EQUATORIAL GUINEA SURVEYORS ERITREA SURVEYORS ESTONIA SURVEYORS
ETHIOPIA SURVEYORS EUROPEAN UNION SURVEYORS FAROE ISLANDS SURVEYORS FIJI SURVEYORS FINLAND SURVEYORS
FRANCE SURVEYORS FRENCH GUIANA SURVEYORS FRENCH POLYNESIA SURVEYORS GABON SURVEYORS GAMBIA SURVEYORS
GEORGIA SURVEYORS GERMANY SURVEYORS GHANA SURVEYORS GIBRALTAR SURVEYORS GREECE SURVEYORS
GREENLAND SURVEYORS GRENADA SURVEYORS GUADELOUPE SURVEYORS GUAM SURVEYORS GUATEMALA SURVEYORS
GUERNSEY SURVEYORS GUINEA SURVEYORS GUINEA-BISSAU SURVEYORS GUYANA SURVEYORS HAITI SURVEYORS
HOLY SEE SURVEYORS HONDURAS SURVEYORS HONG KONG SURVEYORS HUNGARY SURVEYORS ICELAND SURVEYORS
INDIA SURVEYORS INDONESIA SURVEYORS IRAN SURVEYORS IRAQ SURVEYORS IRELAND SURVEYORS
ISLE OF MAN SURVEYORS ISRAEL SURVEYORS ITALY SURVEYORS JAMAICA SURVEYORS JAPAN SURVEYORS
JERSEY SURVEYORS JORDAN SURVEYORS KAZAKHSTAN SURVEYORS KENYA SURVEYORS KIRIBATI SURVEYORS
KOREA SURVEYORS KOREA REPUBLIC OF SURVEYORS KUWAIT SURVEYORS KYRGYZSTAN SURVEYORS LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC SURVEYORS
LATVIA SURVEYORS LEBANON SURVEYORS LESOTHO SURVEYORS LIBERIA SURVEYORS LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA SURVEYORS
LIECHTENSTEIN SURVEYORS LITHUANIA SURVEYORS LUXEMBOURG SURVEYORS MACAU SURVEYORS MACEDONIA SURVEYORS
MADAGASCAR SURVEYORS MALAWI SURVEYORS MALAYSIA SURVEYORS MALDIVES SURVEYORS MALI SURVEYORS
MALTA SURVEYORS MARSHALL ISLANDS SURVEYORS MARTINIQUE SURVEYORS MAURITANIA SURVEYORS MAURITIUS SURVEYORS
MAYOTTE SURVEYORS MEXICO SURVEYORS MICRONESIA SURVEYORS MOLDOVA SURVEYORS MONACO SURVEYORS
MONGOLIA SURVEYORS MONTENEGRO SURVEYORS MONTSERRAT SURVEYORS MOROCCO SURVEYORS MOZAMBIQUE SURVEYORS
MYANMAR SURVEYORS NAMIBIA SURVEYORS NAURU SURVEYORS NEPAL SURVEYORS NETHERLANDS SURVEYORS
NEW CALEDONIA SURVEYORS NEW ZEALAND SURVEYORS NICARAGUA SURVEYORS NIGER SURVEYORS NIGERIA SURVEYORS
NIUE SURVEYORS NON-SPEC ASIA PAS LOCATION SURVEYORS NORFOLK ISLAND SURVEYORS NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS SURVEYORS NORWAY SURVEYORS
OMAN SURVEYORS PAKISTAN SURVEYORS PALAU SURVEYORS PALESTINIAN TERRITORY OCCUPIED SURVEYORS PANAMA SURVEYORS
PAPUA NEW GUINEA SURVEYORS PARAGUAY SURVEYORS PERU SURVEYORS PHILIPPINES SURVEYORS POLAND SURVEYORS
PORTUGAL SURVEYORS PUERTO RICO SURVEYORS QATAR SURVEYORS RESERVED SURVEYORS REUNION SURVEYORS
ROMANIA SURVEYORS RUSSIAN FEDERATION SURVEYORS RWANDA SURVEYORS SAINT KITTS & NEVIS SURVEYORS SAINT LUCIA SURVEYORS
SAINT MARTIN SURVEYORS SAINT VINCENT & THE GRENADINES SURVEYORS SAMOA SURVEYORS SAN MARINO SURVEYORS SAO TOME & PRINCIPE SURVEYORS
SAUDI ARABIA SURVEYORS SENEGAL SURVEYORS SERBIA SURVEYORS SEYCHELLES SURVEYORS SIERRA LEONE SURVEYORS
SINGAPORE SURVEYORS SINT MAARTEN SURVEYORS SLOVAKIA (SLOVAK REPUBLIC) SURVEYORS SLOVENIA SURVEYORS SOLOMON ISLANDS SURVEYORS
SOMALIA SURVEYORS SOUTH AFRICA SURVEYORS SOUTH SUDAN SURVEYORS SPAIN SURVEYORS SRI LANKA SURVEYORS
ST. PIERRE AND MIQUELON SURVEYORS SUDAN SURVEYORS SURINAME SURVEYORS SWAZILAND SURVEYORS SWEDEN SURVEYORS
SWITZERLAND SURVEYORS SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC SURVEYORS TAIWAN; REPUBLIC OF CHINA (ROC) SURVEYORS TAJIKISTAN SURVEYORS TANZANIA UNITED REPUBLIC OF SURVEYORS
THAILAND SURVEYORS TIMOR-LESTE SURVEYORS TOGO SURVEYORS TOKELAU SURVEYORS TONGA SURVEYORS
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO SURVEYORS TUNISIA SURVEYORS TURKEY SURVEYORS TURKMENISTAN SURVEYORS TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS SURVEYORS
TUVALU SURVEYORS UGANDA SURVEYORS UKRAINE SURVEYORS UNITED ARAB EMIRATES SURVEYORS UNITED KINGDOM SURVEYORS
UNITED STATES SURVEYORS URUGUAY SURVEYORS UZBEKISTAN SURVEYORS VANUATU SURVEYORS VENEZUELA SURVEYORS
VIET NAM SURVEYORS VIRGIN ISLANDS (BRITISH) SURVEYORS VIRGIN ISLANDS (U.S.) SURVEYORS WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS SURVEYORS YEMEN SURVEYORS
ZAMBIA SURVEYORS ZIMBABWE SURVEYORS SURVEYORS

Location Based Surveying Practices

Land Surveyors United is the world's FIRST Global Social Network for geospatial professionals. We have dedicated, geolocated support groups for practically every country, continent and state on earth, for you to utilize for building your personal network. We are all essentially concerned with the same issues, no matter where we are located on earth. However, surveying practices and methods vary depending on the geographic location where we work. If you have noticed similarities and differences between the conditions, laws and practices between two or more areas of the world,discuss it in this forum. Build your reputation online by posting relevant discussions in your local group below.

Join and Introduce Yourself in Your Local Geosocial Forum:

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California
Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia
Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa
Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland
Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri
Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey
New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio
Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina
South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont
Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Not based in the US? Here are other groups for surveyors around the world to join and contribute knowledge and experiences as a land surveyor:

Africa Asia Australia Europe Russia Canada
Antarctica S.America N. America India Malaysia Caribbean

And more... Find your group forum based on location.

Choose Your Equipment Group Here

Handheld US Social Support for Land SurveyorsNIKON Social Support for Land SurveyorsTrimble Social Support for Land SurveyorsTopcon Social Support for Land SurveyorsSokkia Social Support for Land SurveyorsAshtech Social Support for Land SurveyorsNAVCOM Social Support for Land SurveyorsMagellan Social Support for Land SurveyorsLeica Social Support for Land SurveyorsAltus Positioning Social Support for Land SurveyorsMicroSurvey Social Support for Land SurveyorsJuniper Systems Social Support for Land SurveyorsTraverse PC Social Support for Land SurveyorsCarlson Software Social Support for Land Surveyors

what where  
job title, keywords or company
city, state or zip jobs by job search

PLEASE DONATE TODAY. Your generosity preserves surveying and mapping knowledge for future generations. Thank you.

Survey Equipment Troubles?

Geo Visitors Map

Choose Your Group Here

Surveying Equipment Support for Leica, Carlson, Sokkia, Trimble, Topcon, Altus, Nikon equipment


Surveyor Birthdays

Surveyor Birthdays Today

Surveyor Birthdays Tomorrow

© 2017   © Created by Land Surveyors United   Powered by

Badges  |  Contact LSU  |  Privacy Policy  |  Terms of Service

Live Support