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# Traversing

Can anyone plese tell me about the { mathamatically closed but geomatrically open traverse }

this is kind of open traversiong but i have a confusion in mathamatcly .plesea i need your opinion ./

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### Replies to This Discussion

Hi Sibgatullah ahamd najar,

First there are two types of  Traverse,Open and Close. A Open is sometimes also referred as a Traverse Line. A Traverse Line also has Stations, like a Highway or railroad or say a Sewer Line. It however can begin at a known point, it can also end at a known point or a unknown point. If it begins at a known point and ends at a unknown point, it is not mathematically Closed   A  Closed Traverse are sometimes referred as a Traverse ,it does not have to have (continuous) Stations , it begins at a point and ends on that same point .   It is Closed both ways, A Open Traverse, that is Closed is extended to two known points , one at the beginning and one at the end ,this gives a mathematical check at the end of the Traverse. It is still a Open Traverse, but it's location is tied to two known points and this is how you can have a Mathematically closed but Geometrically open traverse. This makes it a closed link type or Closed.

Read pages 233 and 234, you can go to the top page 1 to load the complete book .

You can have both Open also. This is Mathematically Open and Geometrically Open traverse.

Hi Sibgatullah ahamd najar,

I like to go over what I said  in my first reply.

Like I said there are two types of Traverse Close and Open,but there are two categories of Close Traverse that exist: Polygon and Link. A mathematically closed and geometrically open is a closed link type,it is not a Open Traverse ,it is Closed. I am referring to what you stated in your question. So I like to clear this up. A Closed traverse Polygon it is customary  to measure the Interior Angles and each leg or line, is recorded as a separate distance of each leg or line. This is your choice if you like to use something different. like in Angle Right or Azimuth Traverse but Interior Angles are used as a system check or as in closing the Horizon. On a long Closed link (mathematically closed and geometrically open) and Open, (Math) Open/ (Geom) Open Traverse  ,closing the Horizon or customary Deflection Angles RT. and LT. are used In Route Surveys. Different method are used to check these angles. Also stationing is Plus in,this is a continuous measurement from POB or 0+00  or beginning Station to the end of the Traverse line also stationing is repeated in intervals,as in 1+00,2+00,3+00,this is used as it is one line with PI's. Distances can be used on each line ,if stationing is not required. Do not confuse continuous Stationing with Traverse Stations as in Traverse Points Stations that are used in Closed or none Route Surveys where each leg or line is measured separate.

Also for Link Closed Traverse (Closed/Open) must finish upon another station that has a positional accuracy equal to or greater than that of the starting point location and must have a closing reference direction. This is the one you asked about.

Open Traverses should be avoided because they offer no means of checking for errors and mistakes. If they are used,measurements must be repeated to guard against mistakes.

Also there are 5 methods of measuring Angles for a traverse.

1.Compass Bearing, 2.Interior Angles, 3. Angles to the Right, 4.Deflection Angles ,right or left,

5. Azimuths

And 2 methods of measuring.

1.Measuring each leg or line of the traverse.

2.A continuous measurement  from the beginning to the end of the traverse.

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